The U.S. State Department has ordered the closure of China's consulate in Houston to protect property and "private information" of Americans as reports came in last night of documents being burned in the compound's courtyard. "We urge the U.S. to immediately withdraw its erroneous decision. Otherwise China will make legitimate and necessary reactions," China's Foreign Ministry declared, as the U.S. dollar surged against the Chinese yuan, breaking the key 7 level. On Tuesday, the DOJ also accused two Chinese hackers of working for the government to steal terabytes of data, including coronavirus research, from Western companies across 11 nations. Go deeper: China may respond by closing the U.S. consulate in Wuhan. Tensions hit sentiment S&P 500 futures pulled back 0.4% overnight following the diplomatic flare-up, which adds to concerns over the deteriorating relationship between the economic superpowers. President Trump already dimmed hopes of a Phase 2 trade deal earlier this month, saying the relationship with China had been too badly damaged by COVID-19. Investors are also questioning whether Congress will reach an agreement on the next coronavirus stimulus bill before lawmakers start their summer recess, while Trump warned the pandemic will probably "get worse before it gets better." Earnings Two big names are on the radar today as earnings season kicks into high gear. Following a record number of car deliveries earlier in July, Tesla (NASDAQ:TSLA) may report a fourth straight quarterly profit, which could qualify the high-flying stock for inclusion in the S&P 500. Shares have jumped more than 50% this month alone (adding to the stock's more than 3x increase this year), as investors bet on a sudden jump in demand from passive funds that track the benchmark. Don't forget about Microsoft (NASDAQ:MSFT)! Much of the focus will continue to center around its cloud business amid recent trends towards remote work. Twitter cracks down on 'QAnon' activity "We've been clear that we will take strong enforcement action on behavior that has the potential to lead to offline harm," the company said via its Twitter Safety account. "In line with this approach, this week we are taking further action on so-called 'QAnon' activity across the service." A Twitter (NYSE:TWTR) spokesperson said more than 7,000 QAnon-related accounts were banned in recent weeks, while the platform limited the distribution of 150,000 others. According to Wikipedia, QAnon is a "far-right conspiracy theory detailing a supposed secret plot by an alleged 'deep state' against U.S. President Donald Trump and his supporters." Last year, the FBI designated QAnon as a potential domestic terror threat. Abandoning hopes While U.K. and EU negotiators began the latest round of Brexit negotiations on Monday, the two sides remain deadlocked over fishing rights, level playing field guarantees, governance of the deal and the role of the European Court of Justice. With just days to go until Boris Johnson's deadline for an outline agreement, senior sources told The Telegraph that there is now an assumption that "there won't be a deal." What would happen in that case? The U.K. would leave the bloc on December 31 by following default WTO rules and specific agreements for certain goods. The British government has also abandoned hopes of clinching a U.S. free trade deal ahead of the presidential election in November, with the novel coronavirus outbreak blamed for slow progress. Record retail trading volumes Earnings yesterday from some of the biggest publicly traded brokers have highlighted the major jump into retail trading. TD Ameritrade (NASDAQ:AMTD), which is set to be acquired by Charles Schwab (NYSE:SCHW), added a record 661K new funded retail accounts in Q2, surpassing the 608K new accounts during the first quarter. A record 3.4M daily average revenue trades were also noted, more than four times last year's levels and 62% more than the prior quarter. Interactive Brokers (NASDAQ:IBKR), which additionally beat on the top and bottom lines, said its daily average revenue trades increased 111% since the same quarter last year, while customer accounts grew to 867K. 737 MAX may not return until next year The latest timeline anticipates the FAA won't finish work to lift its March 2019 grounding order until late October or early November because the agency has decided to ask for public comments before finalizing software and hardware changes, WSJ reports. Completing pilot training and maintenance checks is expected to stretch well into December, and only then will the MAX be ready to return to commercial service. That means the jets are expected to be grounded at least as long under current Boeing (NYSE:BA) CEO David Calhoun as under his predecessor, Dennis Muilenburg, who was ousted at the end of 2019 after repeated delays in getting the plane back in the air. BA -1.3% premarket. Self-driving partnerships Ending work on autonomous commercial vehicles it began with startup Aurora in 2019, Fiat Chrysler (NYSE:FCAU) has selected Waymo as its exclusive, strategic technology partner for "Level 4" fully self-driving technology across its full product portfolio. The collaboration will start with the Ram ProMaster full-size van, though it's likely to expand given Fiat's expected merger with PSA Group into a company called Stellantis. It's been quite a run for the Alphabet (GOOG, GOOGL) unit. Waymo, considered the leader in autonomous vehicle development, inked another partnership in June with Volvo Cars (OTCPK:GELYY) to develop self-driving electric vehicles designed for ride-hailing. What else is happening... Senate committee clears Shelton, Waller for Fed positions. Apple (NASDAQ:AAPL) pledges to be 100% carbon neutral by 2030. Best Buy (NYSE:BBY) sales are rebounding as stores reopen. Tesla's (TSLA) Elon Musk qualifies for another $2.1B payday. Jamf (JAMF) prices upsized IPO above range at $26. Tuesday's Key Earnings Coca-Cola (NYSE:KO) +2.3% saying the worst is over. Lockheed Martin (NYSE:LMT) +2.6% topping estimates, raising guidance. Philip Morris (NYSE:PM) +4.2% posting better-than-feared results. Snap (NYSE:SNAP) -6.2% AH on lagging Q2 growth. Texas Instruments (NASDAQ:TXN) +1.3% AH following Q2 beats, upside outlook. United Airlines (NASDAQ:UAL) +1.2% AH expecting to lower cash burn. Today's Markets In Asia, Japan -0.6%. Hong Kong -2.3%. China +0.4%. India -0.2%. In Europe, at midday, London -0.9%. Paris -1.2%. Frankfurt -0.6%. Futures at 6:20, Dow -0.4%. S&P -0.4%. Nasdaq flat. Crude -1.3% to $41.36. Gold +0.7% to $1856.50. Bitcoin -0.7% to $9351. Ten-year Treasury Yield -2 bps to 0.59% Today's Economic Calendar 7:00 MBA Mortgage Applications 9:00 FHFA House Price Index 10:00 Existing Home Sales 10:30 EIA Petroleum Inventories 1:00 PM Results of $17B, 20-Year Bond Auction
Imagine if there was one desk that all stories could cross so that, at 4am, a media plan could be decided upon and disseminated where all news outlets coordinated to set the goalposts of debate and hyper focused on specific issues to drive a narrative to control how you vote and how you spend money; where Internet shills were given marching orders in tandem to what was shown on television, printed in newspapers and spread throughout articles on the World Wide Web. https://i.imgur.com/Elnci0M.png In the past, we had Operation Mockingbird, where the program was supremely confident that it could control stories around the world, even in instructions to cover up any story about a possible “Yeti” sighting, should it turn out they were real. https://i.imgur.com/121LXqy.png If, in 1959, the government was confident in its ability to control a story about a Yeti, then what is their level of confidence in controlling stories, today? https://i.imgur.com/jQFVYew.png https://i.imgur.com/ZKMYGJj.png In fact, we have a recent example of a situation similar to the Yeti. When Bill Clinton and Loretta Lynch met on the TARMAC to spike the Hillary email investigation, the FBI was so confident it wasn’t them, that their entire focus was finding the leaker, starting with searching within the local PD. We have documentation that demonstrates the state of mind of the confidence the upper levels of the FBI have when dealing with the media. https://i.imgur.com/IbjDOkI.png https://i.imgur.com/NH86ozU.png The marriage between mainstream media and government is a literal one and this arrangement is perfectly legal. https://i.imgur.com/OAd4vpf.png But, this problem extends far beyond politics; the private sector, the scientific community, even advice forums are shilled heavily. People are paid to cause anxiety, recommend people break up and otherwise sow depression and nervousness. This is due to a correlating force that employs “systems psychodynamics”, focusing on “tension centered” strategies to create “organizational paradoxes” by targeting people’s basic assumptions about the world around them to create division and provide distraction. https://i.imgur.com/6OEWYFN.png https://i.imgur.com/iG4sdD4.png https://i.imgur.com/e89Rx6B.png https://i.imgur.com/uotm9Cg.png https://i.imgur.com/74wt9tD.png In this day and age, it is even easier to manage these concepts and push a controlled narrative from a central figure than it has ever been. Allen & Co is a “boutique investment firm” that managed the merger between Disney and Fox and operates as an overseeing force for nearly all media and Internet shill armies, while having it’s fingers in sports, social media, video games, health insurance, etc. https://i.imgur.com/zlpBh3c.png https://i.imgur.com/e5ZvFFJ.png Former director of the CIA and Paul Brennan’s former superior George Tenet, holds the reigns of Allen & Co. The cast of characters involves a lot of the usual suspects. https://i.imgur.com/3OlrX7G.png
In 1973, Allen & Company bought a stake in Columbia Pictures. When the business was sold in 1982 to Coca-Cola, it netted a significant profit. Since then, Herbert Allen, Jr. has had a place on Coca-Cola's board of directors. Since its founding in 1982, the Allen & Company Sun Valley Conference has regularly drawn high-profile attendees such as Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, Rupert Murdoch, Barry Diller, Michael Eisner, Oprah Winfrey, Robert Johnson, Andy Grove, Richard Parsons, and Donald Keough. Allen & Co. was one of ten underwriters for the Google initial public offering in 2004. In 2007, Allen was sole advisor to Activision in its $18 billion merger with Vivendi Games. In 2011, the New York Mets hired Allen & Co. to sell a minority stake of the team. That deal later fell apart. In November 2013, Allen & Co. was one of seven underwriters on the initial public offering of Twitter. Allen & Co. was the adviser of Facebook in its $19 billion acquisition of WhatsApp in February 2014. In 2015, Allen & Co. was the advisor to Time Warner in its $80 billion 2015 merger with Charter Communications, AOL in its acquisition by Verizon, Centene Corporation in its $6.8 billion acquisition of Health Net, and eBay in its separation from PayPal. In 2016, Allen & Co was the lead advisor to Time Warner in its $108 billion acquisition by AT&T, LinkedIn for its merger talks with Microsoft, Walmart in its $3.3 billion purchase of Jet.com, and Verizon in its $4.8 billion acquisition of Yahoo!. In 2017, Allen & Co. was the advisor to Chewy.com in PetSmart’s $3.35 billion purchase of the online retailer.
Previous conference guests have included Bill and Melinda Gates, Warren and Susan Buffett, Tony Blair, Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Allen alumnus and former Philippine Senator Mar Roxas, Google Chairman Eric Schmidt, Quicken Loans Founder & Chairman Dan Gilbert, Yahoo! co-founder Jerry Yang, financier George Soros, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, Media Mogul Rupert Murdoch, eBay CEO Meg Whitman, BET founder Robert Johnson, Time Warner Chairman Richard Parsons, Nike founder and chairman Phil Knight, Dell founder and CEO Michael Dell, NBA player LeBron James, Professor and Entrepreneur Sebastian Thrun, Governor Chris Christie, entertainer Dan Chandler, Katharine Graham of The Washington Post, Diane Sawyer, InterActiveCorp Chairman Barry Diller, Linkedin co-founder Reid Hoffman, entrepreneur Wences Casares, EXOR and FCA Chairman John Elkann, Sandro Salsano from Salsano Group, and Washington Post CEO Donald E. Graham, Ivanka Trump and Jared Kushner, and Oprah Winfrey.
https://i.imgur.com/VZ0OtFa.png George Tenet, with the reigns of Allen & Co in his hands, is able to single-handedly steer the entire Mockingbird apparatus from cable television to video games to Internet shills from a singular location determining the spectrum of allowable debate. Not only are they able to target people’s conscious psychology, they can target people’s endocrine systems with food and pornography; where people are unaware, on a conscious level, of how their moods and behavior are being manipulated. https://i.imgur.com/mA3MzTB.png
"The problem with George Tenet is that he doesn't seem to care to get his facts straight. He is not meticulous. He is willing to make up stories that suit his purposes and to suppress information that does not." "Sadly but fittingly, 'At the Center of the Storm' is likely to remind us that sometimes what lies at the center of a storm is a deafening silence."
https://i.imgur.com/YHMJnnP.png Tenet joined President-elect Bill Clinton's national security transition team in November 1992. Clinton appointed Tenet Senior Director for Intelligence Programs at the National Security Council, where he served from 1993 to 1995. Tenet was appointed Deputy Director of Central Intelligence in July 1995. Tenet held the position as the DCI from July 1997 to July 2004. Citing "personal reasons," Tenet submitted his resignation to President Bush on June 3, 2004. Tenet said his resignation "was a personal decision and had only one basis—in fact, the well-being of my wonderful family—nothing more and nothing less. In February 2008, he became a managing director at investment bank Allen & Company. https://i.imgur.com/JnGHqOS.png We have the documentation that demonstrates what these people could possibly be doing with all of these tools of manipulation at their fingertips. The term for it is “covert political action” for which all media put before your eyes is used to serve as a veneer… a reality TV show facade of a darker modus operandum. https://i.imgur.com/vZC4D29.png https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol36no3/html/v36i3a05p_0001.htm
It is now clear that we are facing an implacable enemy whose avowed objective is world domination by whatever means and at whatever costs. There are no rules in such a game. Hitherto acceptable norms of human conduct do not apply. If the US is to survive, longstanding American concepts of "fair play" must be reconsidered. We must develop effective espionage and counterespionage services and must learn to subvert, sabotage and destroy our enemies by more clever, more sophisticated means than those used against us. It may become necessary that the American people be made acquainted with, understand and support this fundamentally repugnant philosophy.
Intelligence historian Jeffrey T. Richelson says the S.A. has covered a variety of missions. The group, which recently was reorganized, has had about 200 officers, divided among several groups: the Special Operations Group; the Foreign Training Group, which trains foreign police and intelligence officers; the Propaganda and Political Action Group, which handles disinformation; the Computer Operations Group, which handles information warfare; and the Proprietary Management Staff, which manages whatever companies the CIA sets up as covers for the S.A.
…Those operations we inaugurated in the years 1955-7 are still secret, but, for present purposes, I can say all that’s worth saying about them in a few sentences – after, that is, I offer these few words of wisdom. The ‘perfect’ political action operation is, by definition, uneventful. Nothing ‘happens’ in it. It is a continuing arrangement, neither a process nor a series of actions proceeding at a starting point and ending with a conclusion.
CIA FBI NSA Personnel Active in Scientology: https://i.imgur.com/acu2Eti.png When you consider the number of forces that can be contained within a single “political action group” in the form on a “boutique investment firm,” where all sides of political arguments are predetermined by a selected group of actors who have been planted, compromised or leveraged in some way in order to control the way they spin their message. https://i.imgur.com/tU4MD4S.png The evidence of this coordinated effort is overwhelming and the “consensus” that you see on TV, in sports, in Hollywood, in the news and on the Internet is fabricated.
Under the guise of a fake account a posting is made which looks legitimate and is towards the truth is made - but the critical point is that it has a VERY WEAK PREMISE without substantive proof to back the posting. Once this is done then under alternative fake accounts a very strong position in your favour is slowly introduced over the life of the posting. It is IMPERATIVE that both sides are initially presented, so the uninformed reader cannot determine which side is the truth. As postings and replies are made the stronger 'evidence' or disinformation in your favour is slowly 'seeded in.' Thus the uninformed reader will most likely develop the same position as you, and if their position is against you their opposition to your posting will be most likely dropped. However in some cases where the forum members are highly educated and can counter your disinformation with real facts and linked postings, you can then 'abort' the consensus cracking by initiating a 'forum slide.'
When you find yourself feeling like common sense and common courtesy aren’t as common as they ought to be, it is because there is a massive psychological operation controlled from the top down to ensure that as many people as possible are caught in a “tension based” mental loop that is inflicted on them by people acting with purpose to achieve goals that are not in the interest of the general population, but a method of operating in secret and corrupt manner without consequences. Notice that Jeffrey Katzenberg, of Disney, who is intertwined with Allen & Co funds the Young Turks. He is the perfect example of the relationship between media and politics.
Katzenberg has also been involved in politics. With his active support of Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, he was called "one of Hollywood's premier political kingmakers and one of the Democratic Party's top national fundraisers."
Last week, former DreamWorks Animation CEO Jeffrey Katzenberg’s new mobile entertainment company WndrCo was part of a $20 million funding round in TYT Network, which oversees 30 news and commentary shows covering politics, pop culture, sports and more. This includes the flagship “The Young Turks” program that streams live on YouTube every day. Other investors in the round included venture capital firms Greycroft Partners, E.ventures and 3L Capital, which led the round. This brings total funding for Young Turks to $24 million.
Hollywood activism long has been depicted as a club controlled by a handful of powerful white men: Katzenberg, Spielberg, Lear, David Geffen, Haim Saban and Bob Iger are the names most often mentioned. But a new generation of power brokers is ascendant, including J.J. Abrams and his wife, Katie McGrath, cited for their personal donations and bundling skills; Shonda Rhimes, who held a get-out-the-vote rally at USC's Galen Center on Sept. 28 that drew 10,000 people; CAA's Darnell Strom, who has hosted events for Nevada congresswoman Jacky Rosen and Arizona congresswoman Kyrsten Sinema; and former Spotify executive Troy Carter, who held three fundraisers for Maryland gubernatorial candidate Ben Jealous (Carter also was a fundraiser for President Obama).
Viacom, after splitting off from Les Moonves Les Moonves ' CBS , still holds Paramount Pictures, and that movie studio in December agreed to acquire DreamWorks SKG, the creative shop founded by the Hollywood triumvirate of Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg (a former exec at The Walt Disney Co.). DreamWorks Animation had been spun off into a separate company. Now it's time for Freston to make back some money--and who better to do a little business with than George Soros? The billionaire financier leads a consortium of Soros Strategic Partners LP and Dune Entertainment II LLC, which together are buying the DreamWorks library--a collection of 59 flicks, including Saving Private Ryan, Gladiator, and American Beauty.
Babylonian Money Magic: The Secret Power Of The Deep State & How To Break Free From The Slave Matrix
I wanted to make a post to demonstrate how the Deep State controls the world through Babylonian Money Magic & Debt Based Slavery which is a major leg of Babylonian Money Magic. Money really started in Babylon. They ruined the entire country & everyone became debt slaves. Back then, they used look at the King like an inspired God so it was easy to fool the people. They presented money as a useful tool but it was more like a siphon that would allow the Deep State to milk everyone. The basic premise is that make the people think money makes life better, get to to use it, and vacuum it all up. It is extremely easy to vacuum it all up when one prints money. The head of the Deep State has always been the money printing bankers. Babylon was a Idol Worshiping hell hole with slaves, people sacrificing kids to Lucifer, and all kinds of sick stuff. The Deep State had the entire game rigged in their favor and the people were totally brainwashed. They always wish it was like this for us today but we are WAY smarter in modern times and more aware. Babylon was so evil that it was overrun in a war so they moved to Rome & convinced Julius Ceasar to work with them to enslave the masses with Debt Slavery. In exchange, Ceasar would make a fortune. He was an egocentric piece of shit like many politicians so he easily agreed. Overtime, Rome was completely bankrupted and that is the reason it fell. They convinced the invading Army to let them keep Rome & Rome was used to spread Babylonian Money Magic & Debt Slavery worldwide. Before Babylon, the entire planet was in a phase called the Golden Age when nobody used money. This is the gist of it all. These bankers are basically the Khazarian Mafia. Their official title is called the 'Saturn Death Cult'. They worship Saturn as part of their religion & they sacrifice many to Lucifer including children, soldiers, civilians, and others. They are a Cult. These aren't just rogue businessmen that ruined the world. These are a religious cult with the religion being Lucifer. They are decepted into thinking that Lucifer will exalt them as Slave-Masters where each Khazarian gets 3000 civilian slaves. To them, they are the chosen people of Lucifer just like the Jews believe they are the chosen people of God. We are all equal so both are wrong. They keep wondering why Lucifer doesn't show up and fulfill the process like we wonder why Christ hasn't returned yet. I have dug into over 10,000 pages of research plus have read over 10,000 in college over 9 years studying Business Psychology. I know a little bit but I am in no way trying to brag. My only concern is a good future for us all. In my research, I have dug into books full of spiritual secrets. Just like the Luciferians have their evil book of secrets, we have our good book of secrets. Through digging, I found that Jesus has been waiting at the door for us to stop crying & start practicing the only 2 things that will bring a Utopia to the world (Love & Forgiveness). Once we practice this on a planetary scale, Jesus will arrive. I am afraid we were mislead into believing we have to wait for the world to get so bad that Jesus feels sorry for us and saves us. This is a great manipulation because it caused us all to want death & destruction because we think Jesus will come back. The truth is, the death & destruction is what motivates us to finally stop doing what we think is right, and start doing what the ingenious Jesus knows is right. Love builds planetary wealth because love means wanting to do good things for other people. When we are in a constant state of love, we are constantly channeling love in our local environment which makes it better even when we don't do anything! Here is a man who channeled love to 1 jar of rice vs hate to a 2nd jar of rice to prove the point: https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DcyDKW-V4AI0Z44.jpg:large Still, when people channel love, it means they want to do good things to other people or things. This causes them to improve their local reality. When everyone is improving their local reality at the same time or at least most people are, the world improves and becomes wealthier. A Wealthy Planet looks like a Utopia. Money has nothing to do with it. We can have all the money imaginable but if the planet looks like shit, it means its poor. Forgiveness on the other hand ends revenge or negative Karma. By ending revenge/negative-karma, we stop destroying the world. Wars, infighting, ect.. all destroy the planet and make us poorer. Forgiveness ends the destruction. For this very reason, Jesus explained that if we want to live in a Utopia, all we have to do is love & forgive all people including those Khazarians. If a mass murder is caught, he can be forgiven, but he has to be quarantined for the sake of the other people. Its too risky to keep him free. Love means love to all people equally not just the mass murderer. Now, when we jail a man for 60 years just for selling crack cocaine, that's brutal. That's not showing any love at all. Putting him in a cage for 60 years causes much more harm than good. As you can see, the lack of love is harmful. Anyone can end up in jail. Almost 1% of America is in jail but guess who makes all the money from our criminals? The Deep State runs all business including corporations, the Government, & illegal businesses like human trafficking. By the way, all these tips are good for all religions including muslims, Jews, ect... Religions are all controlled by the Deep State from the top. All Christian, Muslim, Jewish, ect.. leaders are all Deep State Luciferians fooling us all. For Christians, they tried to make religion as cheesy and non-nonsensical as possible so that we would be repulsed and become atheists. They also made every action into a sin to imprison us. Sex, for example, is no sin. The idea that we have to be perfect is a Deep State plant to confuse the masses. Its about growth, not perfection. Religion doesn't matter. Religions are just cults trying to tell us how to think. We don't need them or their priests to reach God. All of life is God. Some may be wondering why this economic post has shifted to religion, it is because religion is a key part of it. The Khazarian Mafia isn't like a TV mafia that robs everyone. They are a religious cult worshiping Lucifer. If anyone wants to know more about Lucifer & his direct connection to the cult who is milking the world, you can read it here: https://www.reddit.com/PoliticalConspiracy/comments/8blshk/exposing_how_archons_are_milking_humanity_for_an/ So this is the Deep State. They created Babylonian Money Magic & Debt Based Slavery strictly to ruin the world by transferring all the wealth from the 99.9% to them. They do this for various reasons, not just money. They want to breed misery & suffering for all kinds of reasons but one of them is to cripple humanity so that we can't help ourselves or progress in life. This way, we stay low & easily exploitable. The only reason we are piercing through their iron grip as we speak is because we are mentally evolving beyond their control. Its like if a man keeps pigs within a fence. The pigs want to be free but they don't know how to be free. Eventually the intelligence of the pigs evolves to the point that they realize they can just ram the fence & run off into the woods where they will be free & happy. We are doing this as humanity right now. Mark my words this is true. It's not a matter if "if" but "when". This is why they are quickly trying to raise the level of tyranny with their attempts to start WW3 to create the Socialist, Luciferian NWO complete with Concentration Camps, genocide of non-Luciferians including atheists, 5G kill grid genocide to depopulate the world, legalize pedophilia & bestiality, sacrifice children to Lucifer openly, and all kinds of sickening things. Some of us here have been awake since 2016. It took us many months of ass busting work just to convince the sleepers that HRC was a pedophile or that the Deep State even exists. Later the woke ones pushed the fact they worship Lucifer. Keep in mind, we were laughed at, cussed out, called names, & all kinds of stuff when we were opening people's eyes but eventually, they woke up & started listening to all that is simply but the truth veiled in incredible secrecy. Now that people believe the world is run by a Luciferian cult, the next step is to understand that Lucifer is the leader of the intergalactic deep state but even Lucifer is in its final days. No matter what happens, just know this story will end good for all of us. That is guaranteed except if we do nothing but I can see all the woke people are working. The idea is to speed up the process so we can enjoy life. I won't go through all the Lucifer stuff here, but here is the link again: https://www.reddit.com/PoliticalConspiracy/comments/8blshk/exposing_how_archons_are_milking_humanity_for_an/ After the Lucifer stuff is understood, the final frontier is God. That area of things is utterly magical and I can in no way explain how magical it is in human terms nor can the human mind imagine it. Once the God element is understood, all of life makes perfect sense. Imagine if someone took you to an underground prison & said this is your new home for the rest of your life. You would probably panic, kick, scream, and get hysterical but then imagine if all your friends & family came in and said it was all big practical joke. You would calm down and shrug it off. That is the secret behind life itself. None of this is real. Its all a matrix video game of our own making but we have to agree to erase our old memories before birthing into this place. We are all incredibly high powered, totally evolved perfect being running this matrix for a long list of complicated reasons which will all make sense in the future when the worldwide Spiritual Awakening hits. The Deep State knows all about this but they are hiding the truth from us because the truth will set us free. It's too complicated to explain right now but if anyone wants to learn more about this, you can read "Conversations With God" trilogy but its really a 9 book set. Q even mentions stuff about this here and there. Here is Q mentioning how the Luciferians are milking us for LOOSE energy which is created out of Misery itself: https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DV2aUkkVMAAxx50.jpg He is just hinting at it but it looks to me like he's warming up for the bombshells. If Q was really part of a fake show, which nobody knows for sure, then he is appealing to the really woke people who know what's up to convince us that he is real. Either way, considering the Khazarians have fooled us since the age of Babylon, we can never underestimate them. These people are Master manipulators using all kinds of technology to manipulate including AI tech. So lets get back to how Babylonian Money Magic works.
The top of the Deep State are banks because banks control the money printing machines. This means banks are infinitely wealthy. There is not a year that goes by when banks don't print a bunch of money for selfish reasons like to buy Corporations, to bail out their bankrupted Banks, to bribe 3rd world tyrants, to pocket in their own accounts, to fund the drug trade, to fund child trafficking, to fund ISIS, to fund gangs, & pretty much all kinds of very sick things. Banks literally own everything in the end. They are the secret hand behind every Corporation, Mafia, large Gang, Education Centers, & pretty much all things related to power. Who controls the banks? The "Saturn Death Cult". The "Saturn Death Cult" is the official name of Earth's Deep State. So now we can see why Banks are so utterly powerful. Not only do they control the money printing machines but they also control our money because we deposit all of it in their banks. From there, they constantly have 95% in use to produce more wealth. They hand your money out in loans, invest in new businesses like Uber, buy Bitcoin, or whatever they want. No matter what happens, they keep getting richer and richer and richer while we all keep getting poorer and poorer. Btw, when they claim the richest people are Billionaires, that is a total lie. I spoke to a very rich man who told me they have Trillionaire's, Quadrillionsiares, and beyond. Ultimately the banks are the richest. Just the Rothschild family themselves own half the world! We have to share the other half and the rest of the Deep State hogged up most of the other half.
Lower level controllers of money are also making a fortune. They always have. These are the people who rig the Stock Market to guarantee they make money, they get a cut of the money every time it goes from one country to the other, & they have an infinite amount of other ways to play us for fools behind closed doors. When they print money to pocket it, they reduce the value of our dollar. That is why a movie used to cost a nickel and now it costs $20. Imagine how much money they have been printing? They even control all the 3rd world countries because they give them money masked as "humanitarian funds" but its actually being pocketed by the tyrants, who in exchange serve the Bankers like slaves. Its very sad because the locals never see a dime. It all ends up in the 3rd world Deep State's pockets. Even in Jesus' time, they were making 40%-80% by exchanging money into shekels so that it could be used to purchase animals for sacrifice. Jesus got so upset at seeing this con-operation, he let the animals out and flipped over the money-changing tables. The Sanhedrin Group, a Deep State element that worked for the Roman Empire, already wanted to kill him but now they lost their money-changing business. Nobody dared change money while Jesus was still alive after that. They waited a long time before resuming operations. A group of Hebrews created an anti-banking league which went all the way to 33AD when the Romans came in and slaughtered them all in Jerusalem where they destroyed the Temple and all that. They wanted to make an example of that group. The Roman Empire & the Pope figurehead killed many, many people just to make themselves a lot richer. Eventually they bankrupted Rome causing it to fall. This is why empires fall. It is because the Bankers are milking it for all its worth. They are also harvesting money out of all the Corporations they own (they own most), their criminals empires like human trafficking, drugs, ect.., taxes, high education costs, and pretty much anyway they can vacuum up our money. They control the speed of the vacuum so the vacuum can go fast, or it can go so slow that money increases in the economy. The reason the economy improves is because the elites have to use that money to hire us to do their dirty work. So they are giving us money which improves the economy, but their high powered vacuums are sucking it all back up. They have many, MANY vacuums running all at once. Meanwhile, we are here doing all their dirty work as slaves for chump change. They pay us as low as possible because the more they pay us, the more they have to vacuum up all the money.
All those taxes that are said to go to helping us are actually used to harm us. Less than 5% helps us. The rest funds child trafficking, drug trafficking, bribing politicians, and whatever is needed. If our taxes aren't enough to fill their greed, they just print money which is also a tax. Inflation is a tax. When people print money, the value of your money goes down so its theft. If your 5 cents buys you a movie ticket but then the banks print so much that you need $20 to buy a ticket, that means you have to really work hard to catch up. Its just like getting robbed. No different at all.
They create a serious lack of money in society for a few reasons. One, it keeps everyone busy running menial jobs so that we don't have time to do stuff that matters like spend time with the kids, raise them well, collaborate online to discuss strategies for the future, exercise, or do jobs that matter like removing graffiti from our streets, figuring something out for the homeless, beautifying the city, ect... Instead, we stand like fools at Walmart taking people's money only to hand it to the Corporate Slavemasters who are controlled by the Bankers. Do you see how it all works? You spend an entire 8-10 hours just standing there and doing the same thing over and over again until you go crazy! How does this help the world? I would much rather have you clean up street graffiti to be honest. All a Walmart worker does is collect money for the Deep State in exchange for people picking up way overpriced products. The products are overpriced because they keep the amount of resources they have a highly guarded secret from us. They have such oceans of resources, if a 90 year old man even saw a glimpse of it, he would start doing backflips. That amount of resources is so insane that it would justify dropping the price of everything by over 95! Its like sand. We say sand is worthless but its only "worthless" because we have a seemingly endless supply of it. Nobody would pay me anything if I tried to sell them sand but it is a useful thing to have on the planet and we have so much that its free. The Corporations were unable to harvest all of our sand, and then sell it back to us for high prices. They do that with other stuff like oil, metal, wood, plastics, aluminum, ect... They just harvest everything in site, hoard thousands of years worth, and then pretend we have a shortage to justify high pricing & poverty. It's all a big gimmick folks. So they keep society as poor as possible to not only freeze us in place since we are busy trying to get money from their corporate slave jobs, but also to prevent us from making any progress due to all the lost time. Also, when people are desperate, they are ripe for Bribery so they bribe the shit out of us whether we are bribed with $11 an hour to stand for 8 hours collecting money for Walmart or if we are Bribed $100,000 a month to run drugs for them. They abuse the shit out of their black hat criminals btw. They jail them, juice them for whatever they can, & endlessly abuse the shit out of them demanding more and more. If they don't give them more, they jail them to punish them. It's completely sick. Those criminals acted out of desperation & they get sucked into the deep state whirlwind of hellish suffering. So they have us poor, extremely busy doing boring shit, and cornered. There is no other way to get money. The only way to get money is if the Deep State gives it to us or if we share what we have with each other. They have most of the money though. Even the money we deposited into banks is being used. If more than 5% of society was to withdraw, the banks would say they don't' have it because they don't. It's all invested in making them richer.
To further the damage, they no longer use these corporations normally. A real hospital is totally different than what we see today. A real hospital is way more human and cheaper. The Rockefellers changed all that. They made hospitals expensive and barbaric. They hid all the cures. They make more money that way. They even poison all the air, water, and atmosphere because it makes you see more Doctors meaning more money for them. This is another money vacuum. They do this with so many things. They sell you addicting sugary bullshit all the time so you get addicted and unhealthy meaning you buy more snacks and go to the Doctor more. They run fake wars. They just pretend the 2 presidents can't get along and then they tell the tax payers to pay the gigantic bill to the corporations who create all the weapons, ammo, and gear. Dick Cheney made a fucking killing out of the Iraq War! I think he is running Haliberton. Obama ran the heroine fields of Afghanistan where he important all that shit and got all the kids addicted to heroine in our neighborhoods plus through pharmaceuticals. George HW Bush, aka Poppy because he's addicting to his own heroine, is the leader of the worldwide drug trade. We had the drug Kingpin of the world as our President. He started in Texas in 1957 with the CIA. What a joke. All these poor drug addicts got all fucked up for nothing. We blame the drug addict but I am showing you a vision of what's beneath the veil of illusion you are seeing in the world today. This is just about the most transparency as one can get because they will never give us transparency. Doing so would mean they cannot conduct all kinds of evils which they do behind closed doors. We can beg all we want. It will never happen. They printed out all the money and stole whatever they could to buy everything on the world and they have weaponized it against us. Just the Rothschild family themselves own half the planet! When I tell people we need a max wage of maybe 25 million, they argue with me because they assume they will one day have more than that and they don't want any restrictions on their path to billion. Can you imagine how brainwashed Americans have become. We aren't seeing what is right in front of us. They broadcast the message of a good hard working American who goes to College and accomplishes all his dreams but this rarely every actually happens even for people with Master's degrees because they have Bankrupted America so badly, even Degree holders don't make much. The PhD college professors make $5 when they add up all the on and off hours they work. The university gives them a set amount of hours but overload their work so that they are forced to work past hours of pay or they are severely punished. Its disgusting. When its all said an done, they work 80 hours a week for $5 an hour. So basically thinking of it like this. They are destroying the planet and making a fortune out of doing so. We are the slaves doing it for them because we run all the businesses they claim to own. The only reason we do it is because they control us with fear. If we don't do shitty things on their behalf, they say they will cut us off. To say something to that the a population of people who are already financially desperate is a cold thing to do but they don't care. They are competing with each other to see how has the most Quadrillions. A desperate population is ripe for bribing. The man at Walmart doing repetitive movements is being bribed. The drug dealer is being bribed. Everyone loses but the Deep State wins. The House always wins.
When the population is so desperate to survive, they just loan money at high interest rates. This is where Debt Based Slavery comes in. Once you owe money to someone, you become their slave. They are printing our own money at 13 cents a bill and loaning it to us at high interests rate so a $100 dollar bill costs 13 cents to make but they loan it to us for $100 plus interest. Rothschild, a foreign British James Bond like villain owns the Federal Reserve. He's not even American. He just made a giant straw to suck all the money out of America and put it in his bank accounts. Sure, he owns half the planet, but some people are ambitious you know. That's the magic of opportunity! I'm only joking but how many people do you know are so brainwashed that they think like this.
This is a gist of how Babylonian money magic works. Debt Based Slavery is the final element. It is the banks saving us from bankruptcy while putting us in this place to begin with. It's all big game and the 99.9% are the brunt of the joke. Even the politicians, Hollywood deep staters, MSM media, and other low level Deep State goons are part of the slave hierarchy. The only slavemasters are the banks. The rest of it operates as top down slavery. Everyone is a slave. Even if Rachel Maddow is making a lot of money by being a good slave, they force her into humiliating things like eating shit, fucking animals, and all kinds of horrid things because it pleases their Lucifer. The filthiest human beings on Earth who worship Lucifer are making the most money out of all of us because they rigged the system like a Casino and in a Casino, the House always win. The players always lose. The only way to not lose in a Casino is to walk out. We can beg and beg century after century that they unrig the system but every time we do, they just point and laugh at our faces. They laugh all the way to the bank! No amount of begging or crying will help. Do you know how they have stopped 7 billion people from standing up to the banks? Simple. They just put on a fake WWE show where seemingly benevolent forces are fighting the Deep State so that we end up being pacified and do nothing to help ourselves. This is called the Masonic Checkerboard Technique. We see both White & Black squares but never realize all of them are on the same team. To us, its like a football game that never ends. The game just keeps going and going. Sometimes its between Republicans and Democrats. Sometimes its between the US and USSR. Sometimes its between the US and Nazi Germany. The Nazis are part of the same deep state as our very Government is. Those US & USSR were allies the whole time. They just used each other as bogeymen to trick us all into paying more tax dollars to expand the military. The military is not for our protection. It is to protect the Bankers from us but the soldiers who are inside the military are completely unaware of this. They think they are doing an honorable thing for us. You should see how shitty they are treated inside of the military. If you think we are slaves, they are the real slaves. I know because I did 3 years. Cops are another group of hardcore slaves who think they are helping the people but are really there to prevent the people from going against the Bankers and to milk us with fines. They don't pull us over because they care about us. They pull us over to give us a bill. No matter what we do, we are milked endlessly. This is a general idea of how Babylonian Money Magic works. The House always wins. The people always lose. To create Socialism in America, they not only important a lot of the Nazi Party members like John Podesta or Rod Rosenstein or even Merkel in Germany, but they also are desperately trying to bankrupt America as fast as possible until we are standing in 4 hours lines for break and soup. Once this happens, they will rig up an emergency to suspend the constitution, install Socialism, open the concentrations camps, and prepare the world for the NWO with the Pope as the anti-Christ. Why are we using this system? Because we are brainwashed that with enough slave labor, we will become billionaires. It's all bullshit. The players never win in the casino. Only the Casino wins. Nobody else. But, what if I told you there was a way to disconnect ourselves? What if we can just walk out of the Casino and be free? As in the example before, the poor pigs want their God given right for freedom but the little wooden fence is blocking their path. They don't realize they can use their combined strength to just ram the fence, leave, and be forever free. In the pigs mind, he is hopelessly stuck as a prisoner who is being fed only to be eventually slaughtered. It's not hopeless though, the pig will one day evolve to be smart enough to realize he can combine forces with the other pigs and break down the fence. That is exactly what we are facing here. The humans don't know what to do to break the cycle of slavery because people are seeing an illusion instead of the grim truth beneath the illusion. I have pretty much explained the grim reality here but there is a way of breaking out of the fence and freeing ourselves as a people. I spend 2 years studying day and night to figure this out. It's so easy. Not only will we be forever free, the Deep State will lose all of their power at the same time. To top things off, all crime related crimes will disappear, poverty will disappear, fake wars will disappear, everyone will be relieved of the insane amount of responsibilities we are put under, life will improve, planetary wealth will increase, freedom will be attained, peace will be established, the human trafficking trade will die alone with all money based crimes, transparency would be established, poverty would be erased, income inequality would be erased, the future NWO plans would be erased, and pretty much every aspect of life would improve. If the Secret to our enslavement is that the House, who controls all the money including what we deposit in the banks, is money itself, then we should simply change the world system from a money-trade based system, into a gifting based system. To get a gist of the gifting based system, see the 12 minute video here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EEZkQv25uEs The strategy is this: We already run everything including the banks. They just run the highest positions is all. The rest of the businesses, power centers, the FBI, the NSA, the CIA, NATO, McDonalds, Apple, the Police, the Military, ect.. is all run by us. We make up 99.9% of the work force so we basically run it. The Deep State is the one who gives us orders from the top down slave-system they made. We do as we are told because we don't know any other way to survive without their money. Since we run the entirety of the system, lets just keep running it without the money element. This basically means the bus driver refuses to accept payment, the deli guy makes free sandwiches, the police patrol the streets for free, the furniture maker makes stuff for free, the wood chopping company chops wood for free, ect... We all do the same exact thing we are doing now but take the middle man, money, out of the equation. This will instantly free us up. No longer are jobs held up because of money problems. We can just keep moving without stumbling due to a lack of funding. We can hire more help without worrying about the costs. Everybody would not only work for free, but we would also consume for free. The world itself would pay for the consumption. As long as we keep moving, the machine keeps feeding us instead of the Bankers. When we use money, we are feeding the bankers, not ourselves. When we dump money, we are feeding ourselves therefore we are instantly a LOT more richer as a community. As far as ownership, we can no longer consent that the Rothschild family owns half the world and the rest of the Deep State owns the other half while the 99.9% are stuck fighting over the pennies. No fucking way. This isn't working for me. It's not working for the people on this board. Its not working for people in Africa, Russia, China, or nowhere else on the planet. The only ones benefiting from this are the bankers. Once in a while we all get a good run where we do OK but that can change overnight. Some people are wrecked. They have a criminal background or a lot of debt or child support or whatever it is that is wrecking them. Many are homeless even though we have more than enough homes but the bankers want more money which we don't have because they stole it all. Even if we give away our restaurant food, the Deep State plants little trouble makers who are hired to claim they were poisoned by the food so they can sue the restaurant owner as punishment for benefiting society. Now the restaurant owner is forced to dump all of his food in the trash because he is afraid of getting sued. Again, he is controlled by money. Fuck all this bullshit. All we need to do is stop using their money and SHARE all businesses, education centers, Government buildings, and whatever the hell else is an institution means to serve society. All of that shit becomes equally all of ours. We would make it totally transparent so anyone can go into the back offices of Apple and inspect it for evil. Do you know how much evil, diabolical shit is going on now without transparency? Its disgraceful and sickening. These bankers & their Deep State minions have shows where children are murdered in savage wage right on stage just for their own entertainment. Some of these ritual slaves escaped and blew the whistle. They take people, put them in a cage, and burn them for their Satanic Rituals. These people are seriously fucking demented & they claimed ownership of the entire planet! We are sitting here just waking up to our own slavery. We didn't even know we were slaves just 3 years ago. So we would share all of the businesses & power centers. Our own homes and stuff would belong to us only. Anything personal is our own. Anything that serves society belongs to us all. All the hoards of resources, tech, and knowledge belong to us all. We just share everything as fairly as possible in our local realities. Finally, we just work like regular and that job pays for our consumption. Anyone raising kids, going to college, watching a sick elderly person, or anything like that is already working so they don't need to find a 2nd job. That is a job. A lot of the women who wanted to go back to raising kids can finally do so. Rockafeller fooled women into thinking corporate slaves was a good thing. This way, the women get taxes and used as slaves while the kids find a new parent which is the government teacher once again controlled by the banking class. Then they lowered wages so that 2 people have to work just to survive. Having kids is so overwhelming, I seriously, and I mean seriously recommend not having kids right now. Either way, we need to naturally depopulate over the next few generations. 4-5 billion is good but 7 billion is too heavy. The Deep State wants us down to 500 million for control reasons while good people assume 4-5 billion is fair. Deep State does this through wars and mass murder. Good guys do this with education. As long as we work at least 25 hours a week, I think we will all be OK. All those boring, menial jobs where we collect money for walmart will be gone. All accounting jobs gone. All banker jobs gone. We want them gone. This way, we free up the people to do the more important work like finding homeless people homes, removing graffiti, destroying the drug factories, upgrading the hospitals, rebuilding war torn cities, and much more valuable thins. There is nothing valuable about some spending all year collecting money for Walmart. There is nothing valuable about running mathematical numbers to process taxes for the Deep State. The world isn't actually improving. We can really improve the world in an ocean of ways. That's real MAGA. That's fun MAGA and we would all be doing our own thing to MAGA. The world would very quickly build up in wealth so we can all enjoy planetary wealth. So we end the use of money, share all things that serve society while keeping our private property (home, car, stuff inside house), and work/consume for free. This will knock out 2 birds with 1 stone. First, we will no longer be slaves. We will be completely liberated. There is no way to enslave us without the money. 2nd, we will pull the rug up from under the Bankers feet. Goldman Sachs execs will no longer be Gods among men, they will no be men among men. The new system would basically create a world of true equal opportunity. If I can do it, then you can do it. In this work, they say if Rothschild could own half the planet, everyone can own half the planet. That is complete bullshit and nobody should believe this shit. They laugh in backrooms as they puff on their cigars that we all seem to believe that we will be rich if we slave hard enough. All that happens is that we become slaves and stay poor with stupid pipe dreams. We would enrich the entire planet and level out the playing field at the same time!!! Who wouldn't want this except for the bankers of course or maybe extremely brainwashed people who cannot see through the illusion. One last thing, I hope that Trump & Q are ready but considered we have been fooled since the age of Babylon, I wouldn't be surprised if we are fooled again. What they always do is put a seemingly benevolent force against the Deep State. They beat the shit out of each other on TV so we think good forces are fighting for us. This can be republicans VS democrats, the US vs Nazis, or whatever it may be. We end up rooting for the good guys without realizing they are all bad guys putting on a fake WWE show where the banker is Vince McMann. This is call the Masonic Checkerboard Technique. This is done so we end up being pacified and do nothing. For this reason, we have to do something as an insurance policy in case we are being bamboozled again. We have a perfect plan to fix it all of the world's problems & shut down the NWO in 1 foul swoop. If we don't do it, God knows how many more generations will have to suffer before the woke population musters up enough courage to do it. Its better just to do it now and get it over with so we can reap all the many rewards, save our futures, and save the future generations. All it takes is loving cooperation just as Jesus said. We have to be united. Either unite or die. They push "Divide & Conquer" hard for this reason. We hold unspeakable power when united. Everyone will see that once we unite. They are afraid of a united people. All we have to do is meme the shit out of this idea until enough people hear about it and see through the fake illusions the bankers setup for us. Once we think we can get 5% of the population to act, we just do it. 5% is critical mass. When 5% does something beneficial, the other 95% follow. We can do all this very quickly. Think of us like a sports team VS the bankers who are another sports team. We were a disunited group of 7 billion VS a very united group of 8500. Once we unite, we will outpower them like crazy and this is done inside the mind so it doesn't take more than a second to do. Everyone is only responsible for their own mind. If you can do it, you have achieved success. Next, we push the idea non-stop until the masses find out just like we pushed the idea that HRC was a pedophile. It isn't really hard. It just requires persistence. Once we feel comfortable with our numbers, we push to stop using the money and just do it. We can do it nationwide but if people see us doing it here, they will be quickly inspired to do it in their own countries so I have no doubt this will become a worldwide event. We are like the pigs who are upset about being fenced in. We found out in 2016 but now, after a lot of thinking and brainstorming, figured out we can push ourselves past the gate and be forever free. We can do this ASAP instead of waiting for decades for the Deep State to free us which will probably never happen to be honest. i think we are the hero of the story. The Deep State things we are the hero which is why they use the Masonic Checkerboard Technique. We have to realize that we are the hero. We have to unite. We have to break through the gate together as a team. We will be free, NWO plans will be canceled, and life will become fun again. Honestly, this is the most pivotal point in human history. Should we walk out of the Banker Casino and be forever free or do we keep trying to beat the rigged games even though we have been on a non-stop losing spree since the age of Babylon? —————————————— More ideas for the future: https://www.reddit.com/PoliticalConspiracy/comments/8brj5t/positive_systems_to_replace_our_corrupt/
World History Timeline of Events Leading up to Bitcoin - In the Making
A (live/editable) timeline of historical events directly or indirectly related to the creation of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies *still workin' on this so check back later and more will be added, if you have any suggested dates/events feel free to lemme know... This timeline includes dates pertaining to:
Forms of money
Widely accepted economic systems
Widely accepted forms of government
Inventions which advanced FinTech
Inventions in computer science and related technology
Inventions which connected the world via transportation, communication and information
Development of cryptography and cyberwar
Notable Social Movements
Hyperinflation and National Debts
Ancient Bartering – first recorded in Egypt (resources, services...) – doesn’t scale Tally sticks were used, making notches in bones or wood, as a form of money of account 9000-6000 BC Livestock considered the first form of currency c3200 BC Clay tablets used in Uruk (Iraq) for accounting (believed to be the earliest form of writing) 3000 BC Grain is used as a currency, measured out in Shekels 3000 BC Banking developed in Mesopotamia 3000 BC? Punches used to stamp symbols on coins were a precursor to the printing press and modern coins ? BC Since ancient Persia and all the way up until the invention and expansion of the telegraph Homing Pigeons were used to carry messages 2000 BC Merchants in Assyria, India and Sumeria lent grain to farmers and traders as a precursor to banks 1700 BC In Babylon at the time of Hammurabi, in the 18th century BC, there are records of loans made by the priests of the temple. 1200 BC Shell money first used in China 1000-600 BC Crude metal coins first appear in China 640 BC Precious metal coins – Gold & Silver first used in ancient Lydia and coastal Greek cities featuring face to face heads of a bull and a lion – first official minted currency made from electrum, a mixture of gold and silver 600-500 BC Atbash Cipher A substitution Cipher used by ancient Hebrew scholars mapping the alphabet in reverse, for example, in English an A would be a Z, B a Y etc. 400 BC Skytale used by Sparta 474 BC Hundreds of gold coins from this era were discovered in Rome in 2018 350 BC Greek hydraulic semaphore system, an optical communication system developed by Aeneas Tacticus. c200 BC Polybius Square ??? Wealthy stored coins in temples, where priests also lent them out ??? Rome was the first to create banking institutions apart from temples 118 BC First banknote in the form of 1 foot sq pieces of white deerskin 100-1 AD Caesar Cipher 193 Aureus, a gold coin of ancient Rome, minted by Septimius Severus 324 Solidus, pure gold coin, minted under Constantine’s rule, lasted until the late 8th century 600s Paper currency first developed in Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty, 960–1279 c757–796 Silver pennies based on the Roman denarius became the staple coin of Mercia in Great Britain around the time of King Offa 806 First paper banknotes used in China but isn’t widely accepted in China until 960 1024 The first series of standard government notes were issued in 1024 with denominations like 1 guàn (貫, or 700 wén), 1 mín (緡, or 1000 wén), up to 10 guàn. In 1039 only banknotes of 5 guàn and 10 guàn were issued, and in 1068 a denomination of 1 guàn was introduced which became forty percent of all circulating Jiaozi banknotes. 1040 The first movable type printer was invented in China and made of porcelain ? Some of the earliest forms of long distance communication were drums used by Native Africans and smoke signals used by Native Americans and Chinese 1088 Movable type in Song Dynasty China 1120 By the 1120s the central government officially stepped in and produced their own state-issued paper money (using woodblock printing) 1150 The Knights Templar issued bank notes to pilgrims. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value. 1200s-1300s During the 13th century bankers from north Italy, collectively known as Lombards, gradually replace the Jews in their traditional role as money-lenders to the rich and powerful. – Florence, Venice and Genoa - The Bardi and Peruzzi Families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe 1200 By the time Marco Polo visited China they’d move from coins to paper money, who introduced the concept to Europe. An inscription warned, "All counterfeiters will be decapitated." Before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle. Several coins could be strung together on a rope. Merchants in China, if they became rich enough, found that their strings of coins were too heavy to carry around easily. To solve this problem, coins were often left with a trustworthy person, and the merchant was given a slip of paper recording how much money they had with that person. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan Dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country." 1252 Florin minted in Florence, becomes the hard currency of its day helping Florence thrive economically 1340 Double-entry bookkeeping - The clerk keeping the accounts for the Genoese firm of Massari painstakingly fills in the ledger for the year 1340. 1397 Medici Bank established 1450 Johannes Gutenberg builds the printing press – printed words no longer just for the rich 1455 Paper money disappears from China 1466 Polyalphabetic Cipher 1466 Rotating cipher disks – Vatican – greatest crypto invention in 1000 yrs – the first system to challenge frequency analysis 1466 First known mechanical cipher machine 1472 The oldest bank still in existence founded, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy 1494 Double-entry bookkeeping system codified by Luca Pacioli 1535 Wampum, a form of currency used by Native Americans, a string of beads made from clamshells, is first document. 1553 Vigenere Cipher 1557 Phillip II of Spain managed to burden his kingdom with so much debt (as the result of several pointless wars) that he caused the world's first national bankruptcy — as well as the world's second, third and fourth, in rapid succession. 1577 Newspaper in Korea 1586 The Babington Plot 1590 Cabinet Noir was established in France. Its mission was to open, read and reseal letters, and great expertise was developed in the restoration of broken seals. In the knowledge that mail was being opened, correspondents began to develop systems to encrypt and decrypt their letters. The breaking of these codes gave birth to modern systematic scientific code breaking. 1600s Promissory banknotes began in London 1600s By the early 17th century banking begins also to exist in its modern sense - as a commercial service for customers rather than kings. – Late 17th century we see cheques slowly gains acceptance The total of the money left on deposit by a bank's customers is a large sum, only a fraction of which is usually required for withdrawals. A proportion of the rest can be lent out at interest, bringing profit to the bank. When the customers later come to realize this hidden value of their unused funds, the bank's profit becomes the difference between the rates of interest paid to depositors and demanded from debtors. The transformation from moneylenders into private banks is a gradual one during the 17th and 18th centuries. In England it is achieved by various families of goldsmiths who early in the period accept money on deposit purely for safe-keeping. Then they begin to lend some of it out. Finally, by the 18th century, they make banking their business in place of their original craft as goldsmiths. 1605 Newspaper in Straussburg c1627 Great Cipher 1637 Wampum is declared as legal tender in the U.S. (where we got the slang word “clams” for money) 1656 Johan Palmstruch establishes the Stockholm Banco 1661 Paper Currency reappears in Europe, soon became common - The goldsmith-bankers of London began to give out the receipts as payable to the bearer of the document rather than the original depositor 1661 Palmstruch issues credit notes which can be exchanged, on presentation to his bank, for a stated number of silver coins 1666 Stockholms Banco, the predecessor to the Central Bank of Sweden issues the first paper money in Europe. Soon went bankrupt for printing too much money. 1667 He issues more notes than his bank can afford to redeem with silver and winds up in disgrace, facing a death penalty (commuted to imprisonment) for fraud. 1668 Bank of Sweden – today the 2nd oldest surviving bank 1694 First Central Bank established in the UK was the first bank to initiate the permanent issue of banknotes Served as model for most modern central banks. The modern banknote rests on the assumption that money is determined by a social and legal consensus. A gold coin's value is simply a reflection of the supply and demand mechanism of a society exchanging goods in a free market, as opposed to stemming from any intrinsic property of the metal. By the late 17th century, this new conceptual outlook helped to stimulate the issue of banknotes. 1700s Throughout the commercially energetic 18th century there are frequent further experiments with bank notes - deriving from a recognized need to expand the currency supply beyond the availability of precious metals. 1710 Physiocracy 1712 First commercial steam engine 1717 Master of the Royal Mint Sir Isaac Newton established a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation (bimetalism) and putting Britain on a gold standard. 1735 Classical Economics – markets regulate themselves when free of intervention 1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Founder of the Rothschild Banking Empire, is Born in Frankfurt, Germany Mayer Amschel Rothschild extended his banking empire across Europe by carefully placing his five sons in key positions. They set up banks in Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris. By the mid 1800’s they dominated the banking industry, lending to governments around the world and people such as the Vanderbilts, Carnegies, and Cecil Rhodes. 1745 There was a gradual move toward the issuance of fixed denomination notes in England standardized printed notes ranging from £20 to £1,000 were being printed. 1748 First recorded use of the word buck for a dollar, stemming from the Colonial period in America when buck skins were commonly traded 1757 Colonial Scrip Issued in US 1760s Mayer Amschel Rothschild establishes his banking business 1769 First steam powered car 1775-1938 US Diplomatic Codes & Ciphers by Ralph E Weber used – problems were security and distribution 1776 American Independence 1776 Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand theory helped bankers and money-lenders limit government interference in the banking sector 1781 The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted created the US Nation's first de facto central bank. When shares in the bank were sold to the public, the Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering. It lasted less than ten years. 1783 First steamboat 1791 Congress Creates the First US Bank – A Private Company, Partly Owned by Foreigners – to Handle the Financial Needs of the New Central Government. First Bank of the United States, a National bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, it was not renewed in 1811. Previously, the 13 states had their own banks, currencies and financial institutions, which had an average lifespan of about 5 years. 1792 First optical telegraph invented where towers with telescopes were dispersed across France 12-25 km apart, relaying signals according to positions of arms extended from the top of the towers. 1795 Thomas Jefferson invents the Jefferson Disk Cipher or Wheel Cipher 1797 to 1821 Restriction Period by England of trading banknotes for silver during Napoleonic Wars 1797 Currency Crisis Although the Bank was originally a private institution, by the end of the 18th century it was increasingly being regarded as a public authority with civic responsibility toward the upkeep of a healthy financial system. 1799 First paper machine 1800 Banque de France – France’s central bank opens to try to improve financing of the war 1800 Invention of the battery 1801 Rotchschild Dynasty begins in Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire – established international banking family through his 5 sons who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples 1804 Steam locomotive 1807 Internal combustion engine and automobile 1807 Robert Fulton expands water transportation and trade with the workable steamboat. 1809 Telegraphy 1811 First powered printing press, also first to use a cylinder 1816 The Privately Owned Second Bank of the US was Chartered – It Served as the Main Depository for Government Revenue, Making it a Highly Profitable Bank – charter not renewed in 1836 1816 The first working telegraph was built using static electricity 1816 Gold becomes the official standard of value in England 1820 Industrial Revolution c1820 Neoclassical Economics 1821 British gov introduces the gold standard - With governments issuing the bank notes, the inherent danger is no longer bankruptcy but inflation. 1822 Charles Babbage, considered the "father of the computer", begins building the first programmable mechanical computer. 1832 Andrew Jackson Campaigns Against the 2nd Bank of the US and Vetoes Bank Charter Renewal Andrew Jackson was skeptical of the central banking system and believed it gave too few men too much power and caused inflation. He was also a proponent of gold and silver and an outspoken opponent of the 2nd National Bank. The Charter expired in 1836. 1833 President Jackson Issues Executive Order to Stop Depositing Government Funds Into Bank of US By September 1833, government funds were being deposited into state chartered banks. 1833-1837 Manufactured “boom” created by central bankers – money supply Increases 84%, Spurred by the 2nd Bank of the US The total money supply rose from $150 million to $267 million 1835 Jackson Escapes Assassination. Assassin misfired twice. 1837-1862 The “Free Banking Era” there was no formal central bank in the US, and banks issued their own notes again 1838 First Telegram sent using Morse Code across 3 km, in 1844 he sent a message across 71 km from Washington DC to Baltimore. 1843 Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm for computing 1844 Modern central bank of England established - meaning only the central bank of England could issue banknotes – prior to that commercial banks could issue their own and were the primary form of currency throughout England the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt. 1848 Communist Manifesto 1850 The first undersea telegraphic communications cable connected France in England after latex produced from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree in 1845 was proposed as insulation for the underwater cables. 1852 Many countries in Europe build telegram networks, however post remained the primary means of communication to distant countries. 1855 In England fully printed notes that did not require the name of the payee and the cashier's signature first appeared 1855 The printing telegraph made it possible for a machine with 26 alphabetic keys to print the messages automatically and was soon adopted worldwide. 1856 Belgian engineer Charles Bourseul proposed telephony 1856 The Atlantic Telegraph company was formed in London to stretch a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, completed in 1866. 1860 The Pony Express was founded, able to deliver mail of wealthy individuals or government officials from coast to coast in 10 days. 1861 The East coast was connected to the West when Western Union completed the transcontinental telegraph line, putting an end to unprofitable The Pony Express. 1862-1863 First US banknotes - Lincoln Over Rules Debt-Based Money and Issues Greenbacks to Fund Civil War Bankers would only lend the government money under certain conditions and at high interest rates, so Lincoln issued his own currency – “greenbacks” – through the US Treasury, and made them legal tender. His soldiers went on to win the war, followed by great economic expansion. 1863 to 1932 “National Banking Era” Commercial banks in the United States had legally issued banknotes before there was a national currency; however, these became subject to government authorization from 1863 to 1932 1864 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen founded the first rural credit union in Heddesdorf (now part of Neuwied) in Germany. By the time of Raiffeisen's death in 1888, credit unions had spread to Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, Austria, and other nations 1870 Long-distance telegraph lines connected Britain and India. c1871 Marginalism - The doctrines of marginalism and the Marginal Revolution are often interpreted as a response to the rise of the worker's movement, Marxian economics and the earlier (Ricardian) socialist theories of the exploitation of labour. 1871 Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics – Austrian School 1872 Marx’s Das Capital 1872 Australia becomes the first nation to be connected to the rest of the world via submarine telegraph cables. 1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, first called the electric speech machine – revolutionized communication 1877 Thomas Edison – Phonograph 1878 Western Union, the leading telegraph provider of the U.S., begins to lose out to the telephone technology of the National Bell Telephone Company. 1881 President James Garfield, Staunch Proponent of “Honest Money” Backed by Gold and Silver, was Assassinated Garfield opposed fiat currency (money that was not backed by any physical object). He had the second shortest Presidency in history. 1882 First description of the one-time pad 1886 First gas powered car 1888 Ballpoint pen 1892 Cinematograph 1895 System of wireless communication using radio waves 1896 First successful intercontinental telegram 1898 Polyethylene 1899 Nickel-cadmium battery 1907 Banking Panic of 1907 The New York Stock Exchange dropped dramatically as everyone tried to get their money out of the banks at the same time across the nation. This banking panic spurred debate for banking reform. JP Morgan and others gathered to create an image of concern and stability in the face of the panic, which eventually led to the formation of the Federal Reserve. The founders of the Federal Reserve pretended like the bankers were opposed to the idea of its formation in order to mislead the public into believing that the Federal Reserve would help to regulate bankers when in fact it really gave even more power to private bankers, but in a less transparent way. 1908 St Mary’s Bank – first credit union in US 1908 JP Morgan Associate and Rockefeller Relative Nelson Aldrich Heads New National Monetary Commission Senate Republican leader, Nelson Aldrich, heads the new National Monetary Commission that was created to study the cause of the banking panic. Aldrich had close ties with J.P. Morgan and his daughter married John D. Rockefeller. 1910 Bankers Meet Secretly on Jekyll Island to Draft Federal Reserve Banking Legislation Over the course of a week, some of the nation’s most powerful bankers met secretly off the coast of Georgia, drafting a proposal for a private Central Banking system. 1913 Federal Reserve Act Passed Two days before Christmas, while many members of Congress were away on vacation, the Federal Reserve Act was passed, creating the Central banking system we have today, originally with gold backed Federal Reserve Notes. It was based on the Aldrich plan drafted on Jekyll Island and gave private bankers supreme authority over the economy. They are now able to create money out of nothing (and loan it out at interest), make decisions without government approval, and control the amount of money in circulation. 1913 Income tax established -16th Amendment Ratified Taxes ensured that citizens would cover the payment of debt due to the Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, which was also created in 1913.The 16th Amendment stated: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.” 1914 November, Federal Reserve Banks Open JP Morgan and Co. Profits from Financing both sides of War and Purchasing Weapons J.P. Morgan and Co. made a deal with the Bank of England to give them a monopoly on underwriting war bonds for the UK and France. They also invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France. 1914 WWI 1917 Teletype cipher 1917 The one-time pad 1917 Zimmerman Telegram intercepted and decoded by Room 40, the cryptanalysis department of the British Military during WWI. 1918 GB returns to gold standard post-war but it didn’t work out 1919 First rotor machine, an electro-mechanical stream ciphering and decrypting machine. 1919 Founding of The Cipher Bureau, Poland’s intelligence and cryptography agency. 1919-1929 The Black Chamber, a forerunner of the NSA, was the first U.S. cryptanalytic organization. Worked with the telegraph company Western Union to illegally acquire foreign communications of foreign embassies and representatives. It was shut down in 1929 as funding was removed after it was deemed unethical to intercept private domestic radio signals. 1920s Department stores, hotel chains and service staions begin offering customers charge cards 1921-1929 The “Roaring 20’s” – The Federal Reserve Floods the Economy with Cash and Credit From 1921 to 1929 the Federal Reserve increased the money supply by $28 billion, almost a 62% increase over an eight-year period. This artificially created another “boom”. 1927 Quartz clock 1928 First experimental Television broadcast in the US. 1929 Federal Reserve Contracts the Money Supply In 1929, the Federal Reserve began to pull money out of circulation as loans were paid back. They created a “bust” which was inevitable after issuing so much credit in the years before. The Federal Reserve’s actions triggered the banking crisis, which led to the Great Depression. 1929 October 24, “Black Thursday”, Stock Market Crash The most devastating stock market crash in history. Billions of dollars in value were consolidated into the private banker’s hands at the expense of everyone else. 1930s The Great Depression marked the end of the gold standard 1931 German Enigma machines attained and reconstructed. 1932 Turbo jet engine patented 1933 SEC founded - passed the Glass–Steagall Act, which separated investment banking and commercial banking. This was to avoid more risky investment banking activities from ever again causing commercial bank failures. 1933 FM Radio 1933 Germany begins Telex, a network of teleprinters sending and receiving text based messages. Post WWII Telex networks began to spread around the world. 1936 Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented Printed circuit board 1936 Beginning of the Keynesian Revolution 1937 Typex, British encryption machines which were upgraded versions of Enigma machines. 1906 Teletypewriters 1927 Founding of highly secret and unofficial Signal Intelligence Service, SIS, the U.S. Army’s codebreaking division. 1937 Made illegal for Americans to own gold 1938 Z1 built by Konrad Zuse is the first freely programmable computer in the world. 1939 WWII – decline of the gold standard which greatly restricted policy making 1939-45 Codetalkers - The Navajo code is the only spoken military code never to have been deciphered - "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima."—Howard Connor 1940 Modems 1942 Deciphering Japanese coded messages leads to a turning point victory for the U.S. in WWII. 1943 At Bletchley Park, Alan Turing and team build a specialized cipher-breaking machine called Heath Robinson. 1943 Colossus computer built in London to crack the German Lorenz cipher. 1944 Bretton Woods – convenient after the US had most of the gold 1945 Manhattan Project – Atom Bomb 1945 Transatlantic telephone cable 1945 Claude E. Shannon published "A mathematical theory of cryptography", commonly accepted as the starting point for development of modern cryptography. C1946 Crypto Wars begin and last to this day 1946 Charg-it card created by John C Biggins 1948 Atomic clock 1948 Claude Shannon writes a paper that establishes the mathematical basis of information theory 1949 Info theorist Claude Shannon asks “What does an ideal cipher look like?” – one time pad – what if the keys are not truly random 1950 First credit card released by the Diners Club, able to be used in 20 restaurants in NYC 1951 NSA, National Security Agency founded and creates the KL-7, an off-line rotor encryption machine 1952 First thermonuclear weapon 1953 First videotape recorder 1953 Term “Hash” first used meaning to “chop” or “make a mess” out of something 1954 Atomic Energy Act (no mention of crypto) 1957 The NSA begins producing ROMOLUS encryption machines, soon to be used by NATO 1957 First PC – IBM 1957 First Satellite – Sputnik 1 1958 Western Union begins building a nationwide Telex network in the U.S. 1960s Machine readable codes were added to the bottom of cheques in MICR format, which speeded up the clearing and sorting process 1960s Financial organizations were beginning to require strong commercial encryption on the rapidly growing field of wired money transfer. 1961 Electronic clock 1963 June 4, Kennedy Issued an Executive Order (11110) that Authorized the US Treasury to Issue Silver Certificates, Threatening the Federal Reserve’s Monopoly on Money This government issued currency would bypass the governments need to borrow from bankers at interest. 1963 Electronic calculator 1963 Nov. 22, Kennedy Assassinated 1963 Johnson Reverses Kennedy’s Banking Rule and Restores Power to the Federal Reserve 1964 8-Track 1964 LAN, Local Area Networks adapters 1965 Moore’s Law by CEO of Intel Gordon Moore observes that the number of components per integrated circuit doubles every year, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975 he revised it to every two years. 1967 First ATM installed at Barclay’s Bank in London 1968 Cassette Player introduced 1969 First connections of ARPANET, predecessor of the internet, are made. started – SF, SB, UCLA, Utah (now Darpa) – made to stay ahead of the Soviets – there were other networks being built around the world but it was very hard to connect them – CERN in Europe 1970s Stagflation – unemployment + inflation, which Keynesian theory could not explain 1970s Business/commercial applications for Crypto emerge – prior to this time it was militarily used – ATMs 1st got people thinking about commercial applications of cryptography – data being sent over telephone lines 1970s The public developments of the 1970s broke the near monopoly on high quality cryptography held by government organizations. Use of checks increased in 70s – bringing about ACH One way functions... A few companies began selling access to private networks – but weren’t allowed to connect to the internet – business and universities using Arpanet had no commercial traffic – internet was used for research, not for commerce or advertising 1970 Railroads threatened by the growing popularity of air travel. Penn Central Railroad declares bankruptcy resulting in a $3.2 billion bailout 1970 Conjugate coding used in an attempt to design “money physically impossible to counterfeit” 1971 The US officially removes the gold standard 1971 Email invented 1971 Email 1971 First microcomputer on a chip 1971 Lockheed Bailout - $1.4 billion – Lockheed was a major government defense contractor 1972 First programmable word processor 1972 First video game console 1973 SWIFT established 1973 Ethernet invented, standardized in ‘83 1973 Mobile phone 1973 First commercial GUI – Xerox Alto 1973 First touchscreen 1973 Emails made up more than ¾ of ARPANET’s packets – people had to keep a map of the network by their desk – so DNS was created 1974 A protocol for packet network intercommunication – TCP/IP – Cerf and Kahn 1974 Franklin National Bank Bailout - $1.5 billion (valued at that time) - At the time, it was the largest bank failure in US history 1975 New York City Bailout - $9.4 billion – NYC was overextended 1975 W DES - meant that commercial uses of high quality encryption would become common, and serious problems of export control began to arise. 1975 DES, Data Encryption Standard developed at IBM, seeking to develop secure electronic communications for banks and large financial organizations. DES was the first publicly accessible cipher to be 'blessed' by a national agency such as the NSA. Its release stimulated an explosion of public and academic interest in cryptography. 1975 Digital camera 1975 Altair 8800 sparks the microprocessor revolution 1976 Bretton Woods ratified (lasted 30 years) – by 80’s all nations were using floating currencies 1976 New Directions in Cryptography published by Diffie & Hellman – this terrified Fort Meade – previously this technique was classified, now it’s public 1976 Apple I Computer – Steve Wozniak 1976 Asymmetric key cryptosystem published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. 1976 Hellman and Diffie publish New Directions in Cryptography, introducing a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, contributing much to solving key distribution one of the fundamental problems of cryptography. It brought about the almost immediate public development of asymmetric key algorithms. - where people can have 2 sets of keys, public and private 1977 Diffie & Hellman receive letter from NSA employee JA Meyer that they’re violating Federal Laws comparable to arms export – this raises the question, “Can the gov prevent academics from publishing on crypto? 1977 DES considered insecure 1977 First handheld electronic game 1977 RSA public key encryption invented 1978 McEliece Cryptosystem invented, first asymmetric encryption algorithm to use randomization in the encryption process 1980s Large data centers began being built to store files and give users a better faster experience – companies rented space from them - Data centers would not only store data but scour it to show people what they might want to see and in some cases, sell data 1980s Reaganomics and Thatcherism 1980 A decade of intense bank failures begins; the FDIC reports that 1,600 were either closed or received financial assistance from 1980 to 1994 1980 Chrysler Bailout – lost over $1 billion due to major hubris on the part of its executives - $1.5 billion one of the largest payouts ever made to a single corporation. 1980 Protocols for public key cryptosystems – Ralph Merkle 1980 Flash memory invented – public in ‘84 1981 “Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonumns” – Chaum 1981 EFTPOS, Electronic funds transfer at point of sale is created 1981 IBM Personal Computer 1982 “The Ethics of Liberty” Murray Rothbard 1982 Commodore 64 1982 CD 1983 Satellite TV 1983 First built in hard drive 1983 C++ 1983 Stereolithography 1983 Blind signatures for untraceable payments Mid 1980s Use of ATMs becomes more widespread 1984 Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust bailed out due to overly aggressive lending styles and - the bank’s downfall could be directly traced to risk taking and a lack of due diligence on the part of bank officers - $9.5 billion in 2008 money 1984 Macintosh Computer - the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse 1984 CD Rom 1985 Zero-Knowledge Proofs first proposed 1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber 1985 Elliptic Curve Cryptography 1987 ARPANET had connected over 20k guarded computers by this time 1988 First private networks email servers connected to NSFNET 1988 The Crypto Anarchists Manifesto – Timothy C May 1988 ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network 1989 Savings & Loan Bailout - After the widespread failure of savings and loan institutions, President George H. W. Bush signed and Congress enacted the Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act - This was a taxpayer bailout of about $200 billion 1989 First commercial emails sent 1989 Digicash - Chaum 1989 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the prototype system which became the World Wide Web, WWW 1989 First ISPs – companies with no network of their own which connected people to a local network and to the internet - To connect to a network your computer placed a phone call through a modem which translated analog signals to digital signals – dial-up was used to connect computers as phone lines already had an extensive network across the U.S. – but phone lines weren’t designed for high pitched sounds that could change fast to transmit large amounts of data 1990s Cryptowars really heat up... 1990s Some countries started to change their laws to allow "truncation" 1990s Encryption export controls became a matter of public concern with the introduction of the personal computer. Phil Zimmermann's PGP cryptosystem and its distribution on the Internet in 1991 was the first major 'individual level' challenge to controls on export of cryptography. The growth of electronic commerce in the 1990s created additional pressure for reduced restrictions. Shortly afterward, Netscape's SSL technology was widely adopted as a method for protecting credit card transactions using public key cryptography. 1990 NSFNET replaced Arpanet as backbone of the internet with more than 500k users Early 90s Dial up provided through AOL and Compuserve People were leery to use credit cards on the internet 1991 How to time-stamp a digital doc - Stornetta 1991 Phil Zimmermann releases the public key encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) along with its source code, which quickly appears on the Internet. He distributed a freeware version of PGP when he felt threatened by legislation then under consideration by the US Government that would require backdoors to be included in all cryptographic products developed within the US. Expanded the market to include anyone wanting to use cryptography on a personal computer (before only military, governments, large corporations) 1991 WWW (Tim Berners Lee) – made public in ‘93 – flatten the “tree” structure of the internet using hypertext – reason for HTTP//:WWW – LATER HTTPS for more security 1992 Erwise – first Internet Browser w a graphical Interface 1992 Congress passed a law allowing for commercial traffic on NSFNET 1992 Cpherpunks, Eric Hughes, Tim C May and John Gilmore – online privacy and safety from gov – cypherpunks write code so it can be spread and not shut down (in my earlier chapter) 1993 Mosaic – popularized surfing the web ‘til Netscape Navigator in ’94 – whose code was later used in Firefox 1993 A Cypherpunks Manifesto – Eric Hughes 1994 World’s first online cyberbank, First Virtual, opened for business 1994 Bluetooth 1994 First DVD player 1994 Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994 1994 Internet only used by a few 1994 Cybercash 1994 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption protocol released by Netscape. Making financial transactions possible. 1994 One of the first online purchases was made, a Pizza Hut pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and extra cheese 1994 Cyphernomicon published – social implication where gov can’t do anything about it 1994-1999 Social Networking – GeoCities (combining creators and users) – had 19M users by ’99 – 3rd most popular after AOL and Yahoo – GeoCities purchased by Yahoo for $3.6B but took a hit after dotcom bubble popped and never recovered – GC shut down in ‘99 1995-2000 Dotcom bubble – Google, Amazon, Facebook: get over 600M visitors/year 1995 DVD 1995 MP3 term coined for MP3 files, the earlier development of which stretches back into the ‘70s, where MP files themselves where developed throughout the ‘90s 1995 NSFNET shut down and handed everything over to the ISPs 1995 NSA publishes the SHA1 hash algorithm as part of its Digital Signature Standard. 1996, 2000 President Bill Clinton signing the Executive order 13026 transferring the commercial encryption from the Munition List to the Commerce Control List. This order permitted the United States Department of Commerce to implement rules that greatly simplified the export of proprietary and open source software containing cryptography, which they did in 2000 - The successful cracking of DES likely helped gather both political and technical support for more advanced encryption in the hands of ordinary citizens - NSA considers AES strong enough to protect information classified at the Top Secret level 1996 e-gold 1997 WAP, Wireless Access Point 1997 NSA researchers published how to mint e cash 1997 Adam Back – HashCash – used PoW – coins could only be used once 1997 Nick Szabo – smart contracts “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks” 1998 OSS, Open-source software Initiative Founded 1998 Wei Dai – B-money – decentralized database to record txs 1998 Bitgold 1998 First backdoor created by hackers from Cult of the Dead Cow 1998 Musk and Thiel founded PayPal 1998 Nick Szabo says crypto can protect land titles even if thugs take it by force – said it could be done with a timestamped database 1999 Much of the Glass-Steagal Act repealed - this saw US retail banks embark on big rounds of mergers and acquisitions and also engage in investment banking activities. 1999 Milton Friedman says, “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government. The one thing that's missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash - a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B without A knowing B or B knowing A.” 1999 European banks began offering mobile banking with the first smartphones 1999 The Financial Services Modernization Act Allows Banks to Grow Even Larger Many economists and politicians have recognized that this legislation played a key part in the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007. 1999-2001 Napster, P2P file sharing – was one of the fastest growing businesses in history – bankrupt for paying musicians for copyright infringement
Bitcoin is getting a divorce from its overbearing bread winner. The confusion has already begun. According to the current situation, in 45 days or sooner, it's gonna get messy, assets will be liquidated and divided. If you are in denial or frozen with fear, you should be: this is war. Users versus miner[s]. As much as I hate to say it, cash is king in a time like this. The side that has the most cash--not crypto--has a far greater chance of winning. The best thing you can do strategically is stock up and wait, then when the time is right, vote with your wallet. Crack pot theories aside. We don't have to look too far to see that the market will tank leading up to flag day on August 1st, just look at the history of Etth-eerey-um's chain split. If you agree the market will crash, then this applies to you. Hypothetically, let's say market value drops from 2000 to $1000/btc on August 1st. Here are your options for right now:
Fight: Sell your bitcoins for cash on an exchange you trust, right now. Vote with your feet and exit now for a stronger re-entry. Your vote will be twice as powerful towards the outcome.
Don't fight: Get your bitcoin off the exchanges, hold the private keys. Cast a safer but weaker vote after the split. Keep eggs in both baskets.
If I'm right about this, buying bitcoin right now with new money is actually fueling the war.
Artificial Intelligence And Blockchain: 3 Major Benefits Of Combining These Two Mega-Trends
https://preview.redd.it/9coumuk8rkl11.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5f967d1f8b48a3aa510f14f62cde05c5151f6ff4 Previously I have written about the reality and potential of ongoing efforts to integrate blockchain with the internet of things (IoT). Now I am going to look at how encrypted, distributed ledgers could unlock new frontiers for another cutting-edge technology: artificial intelligence (AI). AI, as the term is most often used today is, simply put, the theory and practice of building machines capable of performing tasks that seem to require intelligence. Currently, cutting-edge technologies striving to make this a reality include machine learning, artificial neural networks and deep learning. Meanwhile, blockchain is essentially a new filing system for digital information, which stores data in an encrypted, distributed ledger format. Because data is encrypted and distributed across many different computers, it enables the creation of tamper-proof, highly robust databases which can be read and updated only by those with permission. Although much has been written from an academic perspective on the potential of combining these ground-breaking technologies, real world applications are sparse at the moment. However, I expect this situation to change in the near future. So here are three ways in which AI and blockchain are made for each other. AI and encryption work very well together Data held on a blockchain is by its nature highly secure, thanks to the cryptography which is inherent in its filing system. What this means is that blockchains are ideal for storing the highly sensitive, personal data which, when smartly processed, can unlock so much value and convenience in our lives. Think of smart healthcare systems that make accurate diagnoses based on our medical scans and records, or even simply the recommendation engines used by Amazon or Netflix to suggest what we might like to buy or watch next. Of course, the data which is fed into these systems (after being collected from us as we browse or interact with services) is highly personal. The businesses that deal in it must put up large amounts of money to meet the standards expected of them in terms of data security. And even so, large-scale data breaches leading to the loss of personal data are increasingly common (and increasingly large!). Blockchain databases hold their information in an encrypted state. This means that only the private keys must be kept safe — a few kilobytes of data — in order for all of the data on the chain to be secure. AI has plenty to bring to the table in terms of security, too. An emerging field of AI is concerned with building algorithms which are capable of working with (processing, or operating with) data while it is still in an encrypted state. As any part of a data process which involves exposing unencrypted data represents a security risk, reducing these incidents could help to make things much safer. Blockchain can help us track, understand and explain decisions made by AI Decisions made by AIs can sometimes be hard for humans to understand. This is because they are capable of assessing a large number of variables independently of each other and “learning” which ones are important to the overall task it is trying to achieve. As an example, AI algorithms are expected to increasingly be used in making decisions about whether financial transactions are fraudulent, and should be blocked or investigated. For some time though, it will still be necessary to have these decisions audited for accuracy by humans. And given the huge amount of data that can be taken into consideration, this can be a complex task. Walmart, for example, feeds a months’ worth of transactional data across all of its stores into its AI systems which make decisions on what products should be stocked, and where. If decisions are recorded, on a datapoint-by-datapoint basis, on a blockchain, it makes it far simpler for them to be audited, with the confidence that the record has not been tampered with between the information being recorded and the start of the audit process. No matter how clearly we can see that AI offers huge advantages in many fields, if it isn’t trusted by the public, then its usefulness will be severely limited. Recording the decision-making process on blockchains could be a step towards achieving the level of transparency and insight into robot minds that will be needed in order to gain public trust. AI can manage blockchains more efficiently than humans (or “stupid” conventional computers) Traditionally, computers have been very fast, but very stupid. Without explicit instructions on how to perform a task, computers can’t get them done. This means that, due to their encrypted nature, operating with blockchain data on “stupid” computers requires large amounts of computer processing power. As an example, the hashing algorithms used to mine blocks on the Bitcoin blockchain take a “brute force” approach — effectively trying every combination of characters until they find one which fits to verify a transaction. AI is an attempt to move away from this brute force approach, and manage tasks in a more intelligent, thoughtful manner. Consider how a human expert on cracking codes will, if they are good, become better and more efficient at code-breaking as they successfully crack more and more codes throughout their career. A machine learning-powered mining algorithm would tackle its job in a similar way — although rather than having to take a lifetime to become an expert, it could almost instantaneously sharpen its skills, if it is fed the right training data. Clearly, blockchain and AI are two technological trends which, while ground-breaking in their own rights, have the potential to become even more revolutionary when put together. Both serve to enhance the capabilities of the other, while also offering opportunities for better oversight and accountability.
“Whiskey and water. Leave the bottle.” The bartender produced the required glassware along with a flask of amber fluid, but made no move to open it and continue the procedure. After a few seconds of letting him stare at me, I sighed and dug out a bitcoin spear, twirling it between my fingers letting it drop onto the counter. The bartender performed a magic trick and made it disappear into a reader, eyebrows threatening to climb off his bald head at the number of zeroes on the tiny screen. Cash on the barrelhead always trumped whatever initial impression I made when walking into a new place. Quick as a wink the previous bottle was replaced with something a bit more top shelf - probably from his private stash - along with a bowl of cashews and dried wasabi peas. I didn’t care, top shelf was probably more than I deserved. Not that I was about to turn down the wasabi peas, mind you - they just weren’t the reason I came here. I was here to drink. And drink I did. A lot. A sip of whiskey each for those that marched in didn’t make it back out. Nineteen thousand brave men and women who went to the wall and held it, held it hard, just so that the rest of the world could keep on living. Heros each and every one of the, the best and finest soldiers I had ever served with. All dead. All dead. All because they followed me. The face that stared back at me from the mirror over the bar looked nothing like the man I remembered. This one had a haunted look of someone who had seen too much and couldn’t sleep afterwards. A man who drank to excess in an effort to forget and was failing miserably at it, but kept trying anyways. A man that led his troops into battle and wound up most of them killed. A man who stumbled out of the war zone, gathered up what was left, and led the charge back in. A man who sacrificed the finest men and women on the planet, but got the job done and lived to talk about it. I hated the man that looked back at me. I hated the fact he had been showered with medals and commendations and called a goddamn hero. He - I - didn’t deserve any of it. The ones that did got nothing but their name on a wall and an email full of platitudes to their families back home. A pittance to remember someone like Private Alimah Kerr, screaming as she unloaded her service weapon into the face of the thing that was chewing her leg off. Or Specialist Robert Hue who stood his ground as the aliens advanced, refusing to yield until he too disappeared under a wave of slobbering blue-green flesh before finally detonating his remaining grenades. The finest Humanity had to offer. And nobody to remember them but me and a handful of others that had walked away and then paraded in front of the media. Bastards, each and every one of us. Especially me. Survivor's guilt, they called it. The shrinks tried to convince me that I wasn’t at fault, but I knew better. They hadn’t been there, up close and personal with the aliens that came pouring through the gateway, howling and screaming for Human blood. Every single last one of them a whirling murder machine, all legs and claws and teeth, a dripping nightmare from the depths of hell. The good thing was they died just as easy as we did - only there was a lot more of them. The gateway had been yet-another attempt to create a working FTL system. In that regard, it is was a roaring success - and if the creator had survived the initial incursion, he would have won a Nobel Prize. Instead he became xeno chow along with rest of the scientists. The idiot never considered that there might be something waiting for us on the other side, ready to jump through and start fucking things up. Without thinking, he just opened a goddamn doorway to hell and invited the bastards in, leaving the rest of us to fight our way towards the portal and slam the thing shut before something worse came through. We won, of course. But it was a victory bought and paid for dearly, one bloody step at a time. I continued to drink, mentally calling out names with each sip. Victoria Smith. Mark Belzar. Sigivald Elwin. Andy Paz. I had memorized each of the nineteen thousand I led into battle and then left behind. Good men and women. I wish I could count myself among them. Instead I was left with nothing but their names and a fat bank account, courtesy of early retirement. That, and the memory of how I had took them right up to the gates of hell and told them to keep going. Their great commanding officer, the one they looked up to and expected to bring them home, safe and sound. But in the end, I wound up escorting them right to the gates of hell. If it made any difference I was right there with them, every step of the way. Lead from the front was always my motto. Do as I do, like this, here, you try. They loved me for it, and I loved them back, all of them. One big trigger-happy family. I waved at the bartender for another bottle, and he swapped out the empty one for me, setting another decanter of water next to it. I refreshed my glass and snorted at the label. “None Better” it proclaimed, in flowing gold script, winner of the ‘52 international. Perhaps. I couldn’t tell - it all went down the same, burning a line from my mouth to my gut like a tracer bullet. The soft bloom of warmth when it hit was a welcome relief, dulling the pain. If only it could dull the memory of what happened. We had been out doing maneuvers - mostly a show of force to remind everyone that the UN was serious about keeping the peace - when we got an alert indicating a hostile force at a nearby research complex. The day had been going good and I was pleased with how the troops were performing and gave the order to re-task and take back the facility. I assumed it was yet another terrorist action, a bunch of fucking losers following some jackass who thought he was the seconding coming and wanted to prove it by blowing shit up and lopping off heads. What those guys hope to accomplish by all of that is beyond me. Still, they always seemed to be able to gather supporters from those that had nothing else better to do. I guess vague promises of a glowing afterlife was better than dirty villages and crappy TV. On the surface it seemed like a run-of-the-mill op, just like all the others that we’ve been doing since the UNSOF was formed. Somehow the insurgents had managed to slip in and take over the lab before anyone noticed - which meant overwatch had been slacking off and needed a kick in the ass. I figured it would all be over pretty soon and the grunts could look forward to some well-deserved R’n’R afterwards while us command-types filled out paperwork. Just another day at the office, one step closer to retirement and that 30-foot boat I’d been daydreaming about. A little shock and awe and everything would be right on our corner of the world. Give the kids something to bullshit the starry-eyed civvies with back in town, maybe enough to impress the locals to come back their place and get all sticky together. I was just glad we mandated strict birth control, religious and cultural affiliations be dammed. The first indication it was not a terrorist group was when the incursion team breached the outer doors and started screaming. The whirling mass of death that came storming out tore into the team like a starving man at a buffet. To their credit, they stood their ground and gave as good as they got until backup arrived and provided supporting fire, splattering the shit out of whatever it was before recovering our dead and wounded. I gave the order to move in and secure the facility, assuming that whatever had torn Alpha team to ribbons was some unsanctioned animal experiment that got loose. It was only after we lost both Bravo and Charlie did we realize it wasn’t animals we were dealing with but a whole new life form, one that really enjoyed snacking on humans. By the time the rest of the division showed up to provide much-needed support we were down to less than a hundred functioning soldiers and had nothing to show for it. The UNSOF trained and outfitted some of the best soldiers on the planet, and we were experts at enforcing the peace or dealing with the odd armed insurgent, but an actual alien invasion was a little outside of our bailiwick. But we were also never one to back down from a fight, especially one where the fate of the world hung in the balance. The extra firepower allowed us to force our way through the swarms of aliens that just kept coming and coming. Sergeant Iva Magdalene joked with Private Sam Lammert that it was like some sort of video game and wondered if there was a boss level. That was the last coherent thing I heard from her team, screaming and the sound of gunfire saturating the radio channel shortly afterwards. The bar was starting to fill up, the afternoon working class crowd shouldering their way in and talking loud. Friends backslapping each other, yapping about sports or the latest movie or how the new foreman was an idiot. I ignored them and stayed on my perch, nailed there by a continual supply of whiskey and spicy dried peas. I blinked and the empty bottle magically replaced itself, the bartender swapping it out as he moved by. I took that as a good sign and poured myself another, sipping it as I mentally counted out the names. Afonso Lefteris. Castor Theudemar. Rodrigo Neely. Arcadia Frantziska. Coco Yana. Lesha Teagan. Dan Dorin. Cassandra Goldburg. All gone, just names on a wall somewhere now, destined to be part of a school field trip where bored kids stand around and fidget as their teacher tries to jam some history between their dirty ears. Not one of those kids or their teacher will care Cassandra wrote dirty Harry Potter vampire fan fiction, Rodrigo had been studying to be a lawyer, or that Dan moonlighted as a classical guitarist. Each one had a future and a life ahead of them that was wiped out when I sent them off to die. And every last one of them went willingly. Confident, strong, proud. A credit to the uniform. A uniform I no longer felt that I had the right to wear. I set my empty glass down with exaggerated care, uncertain of where the tabletop was, my enhanced liver working overtime to process the influx of alcohol. The thunk told me I had made it successfully, and I let go of the glass and stared into it, the slowly collapsing film of whiskey that clung to the side a reminder of the gateway at the epicenter of the invasion. The egg-shaped device looked like wet glass, the distortion rippling between complicated armatures keeping the field open. It had taken six hours of constant fighting, some of it hand-to-hand, before we gained access to the chamber housing the gateway. Behind us we had left a trail of bodies, both ours and theirs, some of them stacked three deep. The stench of death mixed with the smell of cordite and burnt railgun coils. I had lost track of my own weapon some point, picking up a discard and using that instead. The stock was crusted in dried blood, some of it mine, most of it alien where I had used it as a club. My continual requests for more support and heavy equipment were being shuffled around and put off, nobody willing to believe the reports being sent in. Those of us on the ground were resolved to end this here and now, holding the first, last, and only line of defence between Humanity and the growling alien mob. By this point we had all gotten pretty good at figuring out what the alien’s weak points were - head shots fucked them up pretty good, but they’d just barrel along until you took out the heart-thing located in their ass. Someone told me later they were like bees, putting their vital bits in back and responding to a queen. I stopped eating honey right after that. Being more efficient at killing was not that helpful when the enemy force seemed to have an unlimited supply of bodies to throw at us. At some point we were going to run out of ammo - we had been scavenging what we could off of our dead comrades, exhaustion and terror keeping us from feeling bad about it. I kept sending soldiers out in twos and threes to search the surrounding areas and bring back what they could. Sometimes they came back missing a team member. Sometimes they didn’t come back at all. I added them to the list of dead that I was responsible for and kept pushing forward. The bartender came over and gave me a look, judging if I was at the point where he should consider cutting me off. I held out my hand to show that it was steady - surgeon's hands, my mother called them - and nodded, my fancy liver having already dealt with the booze. He reluctantly complied and poured a drink for me from a new bottle - my third, I think - before moving down the bar to take care of someone else. I kept drinking and counting off the names. Our first clue we were getting closer to the center of the invasion was a change in the mix of xeno types. Before it was just nasty critters that would attack en-masse, but these were more upright and started to sport weapons of their own. They also started to show a level of unit cohesion that was downright disturbing. We figured out pretty quickly that they were also responsible for directing the mass of smaller xenos, so killing them became a top priority. Same general body layout as the rest, so popping a round in their ass worked wonders. By this time we had finally figured out what the hell this place was and command had bought into our doomsday scenario - but were seemingly incapable of making a decision on what to do about it. I lost three men - Williams, Carine, and Renáta - as I hunkered down and got into a screaming match over the vidphone with a four-star general who had never seen live action before. It was only until I broke off to club a snarling mass of alien flesh that tried to eat my face did they get the message how dire the situation was. Nuclear weapons were off the table - even if we could get the release codes, the fallout would poison a large chunk of valuable farmland and wreck the underlying aquifer. The only available units with bunker busters or MOABs were hours away, about the same time as any heavy artillery that could punch through the walls. That left us with jack and shit, along with a dwindling number of functional soldiers who were running short on ammo and adrenaline. So we did what we were trained to do - we kept fighting. And kept dying. My upgraded liver had finally done its job and processed most of what I drank into hydrogen and energy, feeding a process that cracked the rest into more base components my body could use. Very little alcohol actually made it into my bloodstream, and what did was filtered out quickly and excreted in the normal manner. The upshot was I could generally keep drinking for as long as my bank account held out - which these days meant practically forever. One side effect of the upgrades is that I tend to sweat more than normal when I drink, which is hell on my clothing and contributes to the sad state of my personal hygiene. I honestly don’t care - that’s what laundry service is for. As for the smell, it kept the seats next to me clear, which let me focus on more important things. Like drinking and remembering the dead. So when someone invaded my personal space by sitting down and greeting me by name, I was totally unprepared. Fuck. Robbie. The promised support was going to be a long time in coming - most of what we needed were scattered around maintaining the peace or on a ship somewhere. Nobody expected some idiot to throw a complete division of troops and material into a meat grinder and then ask for more. We knew we were in the right area when we killed a dozen of the Walkers - what we started calling the upright fighters - all stationed around a hanger-like door that had been forced open from the inside. A quick peek around the corner showed the room inside was filled with critters of various sizes, all milling around the gateway that kept pooping out more. I could see a dozen or more Walkers arranged in front of it, gathered in a loose circle and waving their hand-things around in some sort of ritual fashion. I didn’t know if they were holding a seance and talking with Great Uncle Charley or just discussing the weather, and frankly I didn’t care - I just wanted them out of the way of our objective. Once we shut the gateway down I was certain that all of our problems would be solved and we could call it a day. Maybe even get out this in time for dinner. “Eugen, Pyotr. Take a squad each and scout left and right of our position. Look for power conduits big enough to power that thing. Sing out if you run into trouble. Go.” Two dozen men and women scampered off without a second thought. “Mansel. You and yours hold here with me. The rest, fan out and grab whatever ammo you can find. Return in five minutes.” Sixty soldiers ran down the hallways in groups of sevens and eights to find whatever they could, coming back within the allotted time. One ran into a pack of xenos and used up what ammo they had, returning empty handed. We parceled out everything the best we could. I kept as many railgun coils as I could carry and handed the rest to Robbie, who had the other functioning railgun. The rest were armed with upgraded SAR29’s and were ready for blood. Pyotr called in saying they had found a power cable that looked promising - it was certainly big enough and had warnings in six languages. Eugen hadn’t reported in and wasn’t responding to coms. I was hoping it was just because their radio was broken or the signal was blocked, but we all knew in our guts they were gone. More names to add to the list of brave men and women I had sent off to die. I ordered Pytor to cut the cable, which should shut down the gateway and prevent the aliens from bringing in any more reinforcements. As soon as that happened we were going to storm the room and kill every last stinking xeno. No survivors, and no Geneva convention to tell us different. It sorta kinda worked. “Whatcha drinking, Colonel?” Robbie asked me, as if everything was normal and it was just another day in the neighborhood. The rest of the bar hooted and hollered, someone sinking a clever shot on the pool table. “Whiskey. Get’cher own,” I growled back, taking a drink and pretending to ignore his presence. I was in no mood to share, particularly not with him. “And I’m retired.” The last time I had seen Robbie he was missing a hand along with a chunk of his face. The surgeons had done a good job on patching him back together. Hell, they had done a good job on everyone that made it out, myself included. They had to - if they showed the world what it really took to beat back an alien invasion, recruitment numbers would plummet to near zero. So broken bones were set, mangled limbs and organs were repaired or replaced, plastic surgery was scheduled. The scars were erased, but for some of us, they went too deep for any amount of medical care to fix. On the surface we looked and acted human, but inside some of us were more plastic and ceramic and high-tech gear than flesh and bone. But we looked good on TV, which is what really mattered. Robbie signaled for a beer, which the bartender obliged. “Put it on his tab,” he said, jerking a thumb at me. “He doesn’t mind.” “What do you want, Robbie?” I asked, waving a hand at the bartender to say it was okay. “Not like we parted friends last time I checked.” Words were exchanged, most of them heated. We didn’t come to blows, but damn near could’ve. “Things change. You were angry, blaming yourself for everything that happened.” Pointing at the line of empty bottles, he added, “looks like you still do.” I grunted in agreement and continued to drink. Robbie wouldn’t shut up and kept at it. “Still doing that thing where you go over the names of everyone that didn’t make it out?” I turned my head slowly towards Robbie, fixing him with a hostile stare. It was his turn to ignore me and he blathered on. “What’s the count again? Oh yes, nineteen thousand. I hear they are going to make a documentary. Want to be in it? They can use a sad sack of shit. Be right up your alley.” He shut up and took a drink from his beer, not realizing the amount of control it took not to punch his smug face in. I thought he was done talking but he started right back up again. “Believe it or not, I have been and always will be your friend. Maybe you forgot that, but I never did. Which is why when you walked away I didn’t, even if I wanted to. Someone had to stick around and pick up the slack. So while you’ve been drinking more than humanly possible and blaming yourself, I - we’ve - have been figuring out what happened.” “I know what happened. We went in and got blown to hell,” I answered, lifting my glass. “Most of a division wiped out on my orders. But we got the job done.” Robbie hit me with a sucker punch. “Who said the job was done?” Pytor’s team took down the power cable as ordered and we came in guns blazing. The gateway was going crazy from all of the ordinance flying around and its power supply being interrupted, but it wasn’t shutting down. Either there was a secondary conduit somewhere or a backup generator providing juice. I had a momentary worry that whatever ritual the Walkers had been doing was keeping it open, but they wasted no time in jumping into the fray, dispelling that notion. Our first order of business was taking the Walkers out - without them providing guidance, the rest of the xeno swarm should be easy. Great idea, but they weren’t going down without a fight. Robbie and I fought back-to-back, railguns close to overload as we fired round after round, punching through aliens four at a time. The rest of the remaining company of soldiers burned through ammo like it was going out of style. Someone yelling “grenade!” caused us all to duck, the bang of it going off followed by the whistling sound of shrapnel and someone screaming. Turns out it was me. A chunk of metal made it past my armor and lodged in my gut, tearing things up pretty bad. “Power souce!” I called out, doing my best to ignore the pain and stay upright. “Find the goddamn power source!” And incoherent shout drew my attention to Corporal Mahmud Paz, who was pointing at a unit mounted on the far side of the bay that was being guarded by three Walkers and a bunch of their pets. That looked like a fine place to have some target practice, and anyone who wasn’t directly engaged with staying alive moved in closer. Before we got there something came through and started to tear us a new asshole. Robbie and I ganged up on it and turned it into Swiss cheese, but not before it had wiped out twenty men and women we couldn’t afford to lose. “We’re fucked!” he gasped, the side of his face that wasn’t hamburger pale from blood loss. I was inclined to agree, but wasn’t ready to throw in the towel just yet. “No we’re not,” I said with confidence I didn’t really have, eyes tracing the line of wrist-thick cables going from the generator to the arms of the still-functioning gateway. “There. Hit it there,” I ordered over the command channel, lighting up a junction with the laser targeting system. I followed through by reloading a coil and chunking off rounds, the railgun rapidly warming up in my hands, heading towards a critical overload. The remaining troops did the same, just as the Walkers realized they were about to be cut off from whatever hell they called home and broke ranks to try and stop us. Robbie’s railgun failed after five more rounds, the final shot warping the barrel and exploding, taking his right hand with it. The rest of us kept firing, spraying and praying we’d finally punch through and hit something important. Eventually we did. “Of course I am. Shut the gateway down, killed all the xenos, exfil’d back to base. World saved, all that jazz.” I took a big slug of whiskey and poured some more, skipping the water this time around. “You were there as I recall. Didn’t look as good as you do now.” “The miracle of modern medicine. So here’s the deal. We managed to salvage the research and rebuild the gateway. Now hold on, lemme finish. Smaller this time, lower power, double isolation chamber, failsafes, the works. Just big enough for some probes to go through without being detected. Guess what we found?” “Your virginity?” “Close, but no cigar. Worlds. Hundreds of worlds. And on all of them, dead civilizations, wiped out by the sames bastards that attacked us. Research managed to translate some of what they found and figured out that every time a species build a gateway, these things come through and wipe them out.” “But not us,” I grunted. “But not us. And it gets better.” Robbie looked around and leaned over slightly before continuing in a lower voice, like he was imparting some great secret. “We found their home world.” The Walkers and their remaining pets tore into us just as the power junction let go, causing the gateway to collapse in a soundless explosion of light and fury. The best part was that it sent the aliens reeling, making them easy pickings. By the time our reinforcements arrived we had bandaged our wounded and crawled out of the rubble, seventy three survivors out of a division of almost twenty thousand. Fresh air never smelled so good. I fully expected to be court-marshaled for taking such devastating losses and not calling for a retreat. Instead what I got was commendation after commendation, so many they had to create new combos just so I wouldn’t run out of chest area to display them all. I suspected that it was all a put-up job, but couldn’t get anyone to admit it. Everyone kept telling me how great I was and how I had done the impossible against incredible odds. I had so much smoke blown up my ass I thought I would get lung cancer. After a while I couldn’t take it anymore and turned in my paperwork and resigned, leaving the uniform and the job behind - the only thing I had known for most of my adult life. I never did buy that boat. “Explain,” I ordered, giving Robbie my best Don’t Fuck With Me glare. He pretended it didn’t work on him but answered anyways. “Just like I said. We found the planet they come from. Easy, too. If you don’t know enough to plan ahead the gateway naturally lands there, like a default setting. Then our buddies swarm through, kill everyone, and leave. Lather, rinse, repeat. Break the laws of physics, get eaten.” “Well that sucks,” I observed, taking a pull from my glass. “But you never answered my question, Robbie. What do you want?” “We - I - want you. We’re building a bigger gate, one that can send a division or three through. We want to take the fight to them, wipe them out for good before they can do the same to another species. Give the rest of the universe a chance to get off their own rocks and make something of themselves.” Robbie cleared his throat before continuing, “but we need a leader. One that can make the hard choices even if it tears him up inside. One that keeps going and going, putting his ass on the line every single day and inspiring others to do the same. One who knows how to fight these things and win. No matter what it takes. No matter what it costs him personally.” Robbie put his hand on the top of my glass, and forced it back down to the counter top. “How about it, Colonel? Wanna get some payback? Maybe make those names of yours mean something other than an excuse to wallow in your self-pity?” I didn’t say anything and stared at the reflection of the man in the mirror. “Don’t do it for me. Hell, don’t do it for yourself. Do it for them. For the nineteen thousand. Make their deaths be more than just names on a wall somewhere or a glass in your hand. Don’t walk away this time and hide in a bottle,” he pleaded, hand still covering mine and holding the glass of liquid memory eraser on the countertop. As I watched, my reflection shifted for a moment, showing me the man I used to be. A man deeply ashamed at what he had become - a drunk, a loser. A man that thought there might be something still inside worth saving, who had never really given up on either of us or what we had once believed in. A man who wanted a second chance to make up for his mistakes. “Weapons?” I asked, my voice quiet and lost in the background noise of the bar. I had hoped Robbie didn’t hear, but they must have fixed his ears, too. “New SAR31’s. Better fire control, larger magazines, bigger punch. Railguns have been improved, too. No more losing fingers,” he said, waving his replacement hand around, the synthflesh blending seamlessly into his wrist. “Got some prototype plasma casters that look promising, if you want’em.” “Armor?” louder this time. No use pretending any more. “Dragonskin v8. Interlocking plates. Takes a licking and keeps on ticking. Carry weight has been dropped by half, more flexible. Think chainmail that’ll stop a rocket.” I stared at the mirror. “Resupply? Air support?” “Done and done. Trust me, I was your XO for six years before you walked away. I know what you’re going to ask before you ask it. We’re locked, cocked, and ready to roll. Only thing missing is you. The key part to the whole shebang.” I drummed my fingers on the countertop, trying to think of something to trip him up, and give me an excuse to say no. The bottles called out to me, and I really wanted to get back to my drinking. I finally played my ace card and said, “fine, but I want Kitty,” referring to the best damn sniper I had ever had the pleasure to work with. The last time I spoke to her she was happily retired and living on a beach, having traded in her scope for an endless supply of cabana boys and surfers. She was out for good, no way in hell Robbie had managed to lure her back in. Robbie threw back his head and laughed, attracting the attention of the entire bar and proving me wrong. “Deal! She’s tanned, toned, and ready to kick ass. Even brought some promising new recruits with her. So what do you say Colonel, ready to get back to work? Maybe bring some peace to the universe, make a real difference again?” The names were a silent presence, floating around in the back of my mind. I realized in that moment of pure absolute clarity that I had been wrong, so very wrong. The names of the men and women that had followed me to hell and stayed there were not a burden or a curse but a blessing. They had not been dragging me down or holding me back - I had. They were there to lift me up, keep me going, push me forwards. Knowing each one of them had been an honor, and I would never forget their sacrifice. I shoved Robbie’s hand off the glass and tossed it back before standing up and giving the mirror the evil eye. My reflection looked back at me, pleased for the first time in ages. I made a silent vow to carry the memories of those men and women to the farthest reaches of the universe and make their deaths count by tearing the xeno homeworld down, brick by bloody brick, until the galaxy was free from the threat they posed. I could feel the names, all nineteen thousand of them, milling around, tired of excuses and eager to get on with it. Nineteen thousand. Plus one more. Mine.
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